CBSE Class 7 Social Science The Mughal Empire Notes

Download CBSE Class 7 Social Science The Mughal Empire Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 7 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 7. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 7 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 7 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 7 Social Science given our website

The Mughal Empire Class 7 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 7 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for The Mughal Empire in standard 7. These exam notes for Grade 7 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

The Mughal Empire Notes Class 7 Social Science

Notes The Mughal Empire Class 7 Social Science

1. The Mughals were the descendants of two great lineages of rulers, Genghis Khan (Mother’s Side) and Timur (Father’s Side). Mughals came from Central Asia.

2. Babur (1526-1530), the first Mughal emperor, succeeded to the throne in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. In Persian language the word Babar means ‘the lion’.

3. In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat (1st Battle of Panipat) and captured Delhi and Agra.

4. Humaayun (1530-1540, 1555-1556). He was defeated by Sher Khan (Sher Shah Suri) at Chausa in 1539 and Kanauj in 1540 forcing him to flee to Iran. He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after an accident in a building.

5. Akbar (1556-1605), was 13 years old when he became emperor. After 1570, Akbar became independent of the regent Bairam Khan. During 1585-1605, campaigns were launched in the north-west. Kashmir was annexed (1586).

6. The Akbarnama (History of Akbar), the famous historical document written by one of Akbar’s Courtier Abul Fazl. He also wrote Ain-i-Akbari, which contains the administrative policies of Akbar. Abul Fazl also helped Akbar in framing the idea of Sulh-i-Kul (Universal Peace). The idea of Sulh-i-Kul was an important part of Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith, Good features of all the religions into a single faith). This principle of governance was followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well. Akbar abolished Jizya (Tex levied on non Muslims).

7. Jahangir (1605-1627). His real name was Saleem. But ascended the throne as Jahangir (Conqueror of the world). In 1625, He allowed trading rights to East India Company of England. Jahangir married Nur Jahan (original name was Mehrunnisa).

8. Shah Jahan (1627-1658), His real name was Prince Khurram. Shah Jahan means ‘ruler of the world’. He is remembered in history as a greater builder of monuments (like Taj Mahal, Red fort and Jamia Masjid etc.). His reign is called the golden age of Mughal architecture. He was the founder of Shahjahanabad (now known as Old Delhi). He built Diwan-I Khas (for Private audience) and Diwani-i-Aam (for public audience) in the Red fort of Delhi. Shah Jahan married Mumtaz Mahal (original name was Arjumand Banu). When Shah Jahan fell ill, a war of succession broke among his four sons- Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh. 2

9. Aurangzeb (1658-1707). He became Emperor after killing his brothers and imprisoning his father, Shah Jahan. He was also known as Alamgir (the conqueror of the world). He did not wear jewellery and spent a very simple life. People used to call him ‘Zinda Pir’ or ‘Living Saint’. He reintroduced Jaziya (Tex levied on non Muslims).

10. Mughal Traditions of Succession:- Mughal followed coparcenary inheritance (a division of the inheritance amongst all the sons).

11. Groups coming from different backgrounds such as Iranians, Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, and Marathas joined Mughal service were enrolled as mansabdars. Mansab means Rank. Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called Jagirs.

12. The main source of revenue was tax on the produce of peasants. The intermediaries who collected taxes were called Zamindars.

13. Zabt was the revenue system which was started by when Akbar’s revenue minister, Todar Mal, carried out a careful survey of crop yields and fixed tax on each crop in cash.

14. As the authority of the Mughal emperor slowly declined, his servants emerged as powerful centres of power in the regions.

15. Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal Emperor.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

Question. Who was the first Mughal Emperor?

Answer : Babur

Question. Explain the term ‘Bigot’?

Answer : An individual who is intolerant of another person’s religious believes or culture.

Question. What are Dogma?

Answer : A statement or an interpretation declared as authoritative with the expectation that it would be followed without question.

Question. Name the Deccan Sultanates?

Answer : Berar, Malwa, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda were the Deccan Sultanates

Question. Who was Abul Fazl?

Answer : Abul Fazl was one of Akbar’s close friends and courtiers wrote a three volume history of Akbar’s reign titled, Akbar Nama.

Question. What was the main source of income for the Mughal rulers?

Answer : The main source of income to Mughal rulers was tax on the produce of the peasantry.

Question. How did the Mughal Empire establish itself in India?

Answer : In 1526 Babur defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.

Question. What was the Mughal tradition of succession?

Answer : They did not believe in the rule of Primogeniture, where the eldest son inherited the father’s estate. In fact they followed a custom of coparcener inheritance or a division of inheritance amongst all the sons.

Question. What was Zabt? Where was it prevalent?

Answer : Akbar’s revenue minister Todar Mal, carried out a careful survey of crop yields prices and areas cultivated for a 10 year period. On the basis of this data tax was fixed on each crop in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles with its own revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system is known as Zabt. It was prevalent in areas where Mughal administration could survey the land and could very careful accounts. This was not possible in provinces such as Gujarat and Bengal.

Question. Trace the lineage of the Mughals?

Answer : The Mughals were the descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side, they were the descendants of Genghis Khan, ruler of Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur, ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern day Turkey. However the Mughals did not like to be called Mughals or Mongols. This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people.

Question. How was Mughal relations with other rulers?

Answer : When Mughals became powerful many rulers joined them voluntarily. Rajputs are a good example of this. Many of them got their daughters married into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well. Mughals campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept the mughal authority. e.g. Sisodiya Rajputs

Once defeated, however, they were honourably treated by the Mughals, given their lands back as their assignments.

They were maintaining a careful balance defeating but not humiliating their opponents.

Question. Explain ‘Sulh-i-kul’ and its advantages.

Answer : It means ‘Universal Peace’. This is the idea of tolerance which did not discriminate between the people of different religions in his realm. Instead it focused on a system of ethics- honesty, peace and justice. This principle of governance was also followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well.

Question. What is Akbar Nama?

Answer : Akbar ordered one of his close friends and courtiers, Abul Fazl, to write a history of his reign. Abul Fazl wrote a three volume history of Akbar’s reign titled, Akbar Nama. The first volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors and the second volume recorded the events of Akbar’s reign. The third volume is the Ain-I Akbari which deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, the revenues and geography of his empire.

Question. How is ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ a useful document for the historians?

Answer : The broad features of the administration were laid by Abul Fazl in his book, the Akbar name in particular its last volume the Ain-i-Akbari deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, the revenues and the geography of his empire. It also provides rich details about the traditions and the cultures of the people living in India. It also provides details about crops, yields, prices, wages etc.

Question. Write a note on Akbar’s provincial administration.
Answer :

• The empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions.

• Each province also had a financial officer or diwan.

• For the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the subadar was supported by other officers such as the military paymaster (bakhshi), the minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr), military commanders (faujdars) and the town police commander (kotwal).

Question. Describe Akbar’s administration with reference to Mansabdars and Jagirdars?
Answer :

Mansabdars

Those who joined Mughal services were called Mansabdars. The term Mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or a rank. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix:

a) Rank

b) Salary

c) Military responsibilities

Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called Zat. The higher the zat the more prestigious was the noble’s position in the court and larger his salary.

Jagirdars

The mansabdars got their salaries as revenue assignments called Jagirs which were somewhat like Iqtas. But unlike iqtadars, most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their Jagirs. They only had the right to the revenue of their assignments which were collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other parts of the country. In Akbar’s reign these Jagirs were carefully assessed so that revenues were roughly equal to the salaries of mansabdars.

Question. What were the military responsibilities of Mansabdars?

Answer : The mansabdar’s military responsibilities required him to maintain a specific number of sawars or cavalrymen.

The mansabdar brought his cavalrymen for review, got them registered, their horses branded and then received the money to pay them as salaries.

Question. What was the relationship between mansabdar and jagir?

Answer : • Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs.

• But most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.

• In Akbar’s reign these jagirs were carefully assessed so that their revenues were roughly equal to the salary of the mansadar.

Question. Who were Zamindars? What was their function?

Answer : The main source of income available to Mughal rulers was tax on the produce of the peasantry. In most places, peasants paid taxes through the rural elites, that is, the headman or the local chieftain. The Mughals used one term – zamindars – to describe all intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains.

Question. What was the plight of peasantry during Aurangzeb’s reign?

Answer : During the Aurangzeb’s reign there was a huge increase in the number of mansabdars. This meant that there was a long wait before they received a Jagir. This and other factors created a shortage in the number of jagirs.

As a result, many jagirdars tried to extract as much revenue as possible while they had a jagir.

Aurangzeb was unable to control these developments in the last years of his reign and peasantry therefore suffered tremendously.

Question. ‘The inequalities during the Shah Jahan’s reign were glaring’. Comment

Answer : • International visitors described India as the fabled land of wealth. But these same visitors were also appalled the state of poverty that existed side by side with the great opulence.

• Documents from the 20th year of Shah Jahan’s inform us that the highest ranking mansabdars were merely 5.6% of total number the mansabdars but they received 61.5% of the total estimated revenue of the empire as salaries for themselves and their troopers.

• The Mughal emperors and their mansabdars spent a great deal of their income on salaries and goods. This expenditure benefited the artisans and peasantry who supplied them with goods and produce. But the scale of revenue collection left very little for the investment in the hands of primary producers- the peasants and the artisans.

• The poorest amongst them lived from hand to mouth and they could hardly consider investing in additional resources- tools and supplies- to increase productivity.

• The wealthier peasantry and artisanal groups, the merchants and the bankers profited in this economic world.

 

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