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THE DELHI SULTANATE
Razia Sultana was the daughter of Iltutmish who succeeded her father. She dressed like a man, rode horses and led her army. She was a brave ruler. However, the nobles could not accept Razia Sultana being a woman as a Sultan. The Clergy (ulema) and Nobility found it humiliating to work under her, hence they betrayed her and killed her in 1239 AD.
In 1266 AD, a Turkish slave called Balban took over the throne after the death of Razia Sultana. Balban is known for his firm policies and his efficient spy system. He successfully defeated the local enemies and defended his kingdom from all invasions. The Divine Right of Kingship was introduced by Balban. The justice was given to all and he was very firm in it. His policy is generally called as Blood and Iron Policy, because he mercilessly punished the robbers and zamindars, who did not accept him as ruler.
THE KHALJI DYNASTY
The death of Balban led to unrest in the empire. Balban’s grandson Kaiqubad ascended the throne but he was murdered by Jalaluddin Khalji who became the ruler and established the Khalji Dynasty.
The prominent rulers of Khalji dynasty were.
Jalaluddin khalji – 1290-1296 AD
Alauddin Khalji – 1296-1316 AD
Jalaluddin Khalji was the founder of the Khalji Dynasty. He was very old when he became the king. He could not rule for a long time. His nephew Alauddin Khalji murdered him and became the ruler in 1296 AD.
Alauddin Khalji was a great invader and adopted expansion policy. He called himself as ‘the Alexander’. He built a city called Siri in Delhi and also constructed Alai Darwaza near the Qutab Minar.
Alauddin Khalji conquered Gujarat, Rajasthan, Malwa Devagiri, Warangal and Dvarasamudra. He man- aged the Mongols invasion by strengthening the forts. He took measures to prevent rebellions and stopped the intermixing of nobles. New reforms were introduced to collect revenues. Revenue was collected on the basis of measurement of the land. Special officers were appointed to collect the revenue. Alauddin introduced a market control system according to which the prices of all goods were fixed. There were three markets …. One for foodgrains, another for cloths, and the third one for slaves, animals and cattle.
People were strictly punished on any violation of rules and unauthorized competition. Alauddin also controlled the prices of essential commodities. In the army, he introduced a system called Huliya in which the army soldiers were recorded. A Dagh (branding of horses) was used for cavalry with a royal seal. The Spy system was very efficient and well organised.
THE TUGHLAQ DYNASTY
In 1320 AD, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq killed the last Khalji ruler and founded the Tughlaq dynasty. The prominent rulers of the Tughlaq dynasty were.
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq – 1320-12325 AD
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq – 1325-1351 AD
Feroz Shah Tughlaq – 1351-1388 AD
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was an efficient ruler and statesman, a good administrator and was able to establish peace in his territory. The famous Taghlaqabad Fort in Delhi was constructed by him but he died in 1325 AD in a mysterious circumstances.
Jauna Khan succeeded his father and took the title Muhammed-bin-Tughlaq in 1325 AD. The source of information was the writings of Moroccan traveler, Ibn Batuta.
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