CBSE Class 7 Social Science Rulers And Buildings Notes

Download CBSE Class 7 Social Science Rulers And Buildings Notes in PDF format. All Revision notes for Class 7 Social Science have been designed as per the latest syllabus and updated chapters given in your textbook for Social Science in Standard 7. Our teachers have designed these concept notes for the benefit of Grade 7 students. You should use these chapter wise notes for revision on daily basis. These study notes can also be used for learning each chapter and its important and difficult topics or revision just before your exams to help you get better scores in upcoming examinations, You can also use Printable notes for Class 7 Social Science for faster revision of difficult topics and get higher rank. After reading these notes also refer to MCQ questions for Class 7 Social Science given our website

Rulers And Buildings Class 7 Social Science Revision Notes

Class 7 Social Science students should refer to the following concepts and notes for Rulers And Buildings in standard 7. These exam notes for Grade 7 Social Science will be very useful for upcoming class tests and examinations and help you to score good marks

Rulers And Buildings Notes Class 7 Social Science

Rulers and Buildings

Q1. Define the following:

1. Superstructure: The part of a building above the ground floor.

2. Trabeate / Corbelled: When roofs, windows and doors were made by placing a horizontal beam of wood or stone slabs across two vertical columns, the style of architecture is called Trabeate / Corbelled.

3. Arcuate: The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by the arches. This architectural form was called Arcuate.

4. Chahar Bagh: These were the layouts placed between the rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.

5. Pietra Dura: Coloured, hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone creating beautiful ornate patterns.

6. Baolis: large stepped-wells attached with the buildings.

Q2. What kind of construction activities were taken up between 8th and 18th centuries?

Kings and officers built two kinds of structures:

1. The first were forts, palaces, garden residences and tombs-safe, protected and grandiose places.

2. The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells and bazaars.

Q3. Why were kings getting the structures constructed for their people?

Kings were expected to take care of their subjects and by making structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to win their praise.

Q4. Which technological developments took place in the construction activities from the 12th century?

Following were the activities:

1. The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by the arches. This architectural style was called Arcuate.

2. Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction.

Q5. Why limestone was increasingly used in the construction activities?

This was very high quality cement, which when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made the construction of large structures easier and faster.

Q6. Why were temples and mosques constructed?

Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship. These were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron.

Q7. Why were the kings of past adopting the names of Gods?

The kings of past were adopting the names of Gods because it was auspicious and they wanted to appear like Gods.

Q8. How did Persian court chronicles describe Sultan?

Muslim Sultans did not claim to be incarnations of God but Persian court chronicles describe Sultan as the shadow of God.

Q9. Why were rulers interested in transforming their capitals to cultural centres?

Rulers offered patronage to the learned and pious and tried to transfer their capitals and cities into great cultural centers that brought fame to their rule.

Q10 Why did the kings use to make temples, wells and bazars?

The structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, and bazaars were made as the kings were expected to care for their subjects, and by making structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to win their praise.

Q11. Who constructed Hauz-i-Sultani and why?

Sultan Iltutmish constructed Hauz-i-sultani or the “Kings reservoir” for winning universal respect by making the precious water available to the people.

Q12. Why were temples and mosques attacked and destroyed by other kings?

Temples were built by the kings to demonstrate their power, wealth and devotion to God. So, it is not surprising that when they attacked one another’s kingdoms they often targeted these buildings.

In Middle Ages most rulers displayed their political abilities and military success by attacking and looting the places of worship of defeated rulers.

Q13. Which Mughal rulers were interested in architecture?

Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

Q14. Which were the areas of interest of Shah Jahan?

Shah Jahan was personally interested in Literature, Art and Architecture.

Q15. Why were Chahar Baghs given this name?

The formal gardens that were placed with rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels were called Chahr Baghs. They were so called because of their symmetrical division into quarters.

Q16 What changes came in the construction of Chahar bagh during Shah Jahan’s rule?

In the early years of his reign, Shah Jahan’s capital was at Agra, a city where the nobility had constructed their homes on the banks of the river Yamuna. These were set in the midst of formal gardens constructed in the chahar bagh format. The chahar bagh garden also had a variation that historians describe as the “riverfront garden”. In this the dwelling was not located in the middle of the chahar bagh but at its edge, close to the bank of the river.

Q17. Why did Shah Jahan develop the idea of river front garden?

Shah Jahan developed the idea of river front garden as a means to control the access that nobles had to the river. In the new city of Shahjahanabad that he constructed in Delhi, the imperial palace commanded the river-front. Only specially favoured nobles – like his eldest son Dara Shukoh – were given access to the river.

Q18. Which architectural developments took place during the Akbar’s reign?

Ans. There were several important architectural innovations during Akbar’s reign. For inspiration, Akbar’s architects turned to the tombs of his Central Asian ancestor, Timur. The central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb.

It was placed in the centre of a huge formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms.

Q19. Explain the architecture of Qutb Minar.

Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around 1199.

• The pattern was created under the balcony by the small arches and geometrical designs.

• The two bands of inscriptions under the balcony are in Arabic.

• The surface of the minar is curved and angular.

Q20. Write a short note on the architectural development and construction activities that took place during Shah Jahan’s reign?

Following were the activities that took place during Shah Jahan’s reign:

1. It was during his reign that the different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together. His reign witnessed a huge amount of construction activity especially in Agra and Delhi.

2. The ceremonial halls of public and private audience were carefully planned.

3. His audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque. The pedestal on which his throne was placed was frequently described as the qibla, the direction faced by Muslims at prayer, since everybody faced that direction when court was in session.

4. He also constructed Red Fort in Delhi in which behind the emperor’s throne there was a series of pietra dura inlays.

5. He adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal, the grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign.

Q21. How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich or poor, the powerful or the weak- received justice equally from the Emperor?

Ans. Shah Jahan’s audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque.

The pedestal in which his throne was placed was frequently described as qibla, the direction faced by Muslims at prayer, since everybody faced that direction when the court was in session. The idea of the king as the representative of the God on earth was suggested by these architectural features. The construction of Shah Jahan’s audience halls aimed to communicate that king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals where all could live in harmony.

Q22. What led to the cross fertilization of artistic forms and architectural styles in between the 8th and 18th century? Explain with examples.

The creation of large empires that brought different regions under one rule helped in the cross fertilization and sharing of artistic forms and architectural styles.

The traditions of one region were adopted by another for example, in Vijayanagara, the elephant stables of the rulers were strongly influenced by the style of architecture found in the adjoining Sultanates of Bijapur and Golcunda

In Vrindavan, near Mathura, temples were constructed in architectural styles that were very similar to the Mughal palaces in Fatehpur Sikri.

 

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