CBSE Class 9 Diversity in Living Organisms. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
Diversity In Living Organisms
1. Each organism is different from all other organisms.
2. In this activity, we decide which characteristics (we can run, but the Banyan tree can’t run is a characteristic) are important in forming the desired category.
3. Greek thinker Aristotle classified animals according to whether they lived on land, in water or in air. This classification is a landmark in ideology, but has limitations. For example, animals that live in the sea include Corals, Whales, Octopus, Starfish, and Shark. In fact they are different from each other.
4. Classification and Evolution: organisms are classified based on body design, hierarchy in developing, relation to evolution. Charles Darwin first described the idea of evolution in 1859 in his book “ The Origin of Species”
5. The Biologists, such as Haeckel, Whittaker & Carl Woese tried to classify all living organisms into broad Kingdoms. The Whittaker proposed five kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Carl Woese introduced by dividing Monera into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
7. Monera: They have unicellular, Prokaryotic organisms (do not have defined nucleus or organelles). The cell wall may or may not present. The mode of nutrition is autotrophic (synthesizing food on their own) (or)heterotrophic (getting food from environment). Ex. Bacteria, Anabaena. ( (Please refer to Fig. 7.1 Monera NCERT Book Page-83)
8. Protista: They have unicellular eukaryotic organisms (do have well defined nucleus or organelles). The body is covered by cilia, flagella for locomotion. The mode of nutrition is autotrophicorheterotrophic. Ex. Diatoms, protozoans.(Please refer to Fig. 7.2 NCERT Book Page-84)
9. Fungi: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms with cell wall, made up of Chitin. They do not perform Photosynthesis (heterotrophic), Saprophytic (derive nutrition from decaying material). Ex. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mushroom, Rhizopus. The fungi living with algae forms Lichen (Symbiotic Association) .(Please refer to Fig. 7.3 NCERT Book Page-84).
10. Plantae: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms with cell wall, made up of Cellulose. Able to perform photosynthesis (autotrophic). Ex. Rice, wheat.
11. Animalia: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms without cell wall. They are not able to perform photosynthesis (heterotrophic). Ex Human beings, Peacock.
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