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Worksheet for Class 9 Social Science India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
Class 9 Social Science students should refer to the following printable worksheet in Pdf for India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism in Class 9. This test paper with questions and answers for Class 9 will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Class 9 Social Science Worksheet for India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
Question. Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people:
- Shifting cultivators
- Nomadic and pastoralist communities
- Firms trading in timber/forest produce
- Plantation owners
- Kings/British officials engaged in shikar
Answer : Shifting cultivators
New forest laws banned shifting cultivation. For shifting cultivators, it was devastating because there was a problem for their survival. Many of them were forced to migrate to take up some other occupations. Many others were forced to work in the tea plantations.
Nomadic and pastoralist communities
Grazing of animals was banned under the new forest laws. It made the life of pastoralist communities difficult. Herds of animals were their only source of
livelihood. The nomadic communities were declared as criminal communities.
This made their life miserable because they could no longer move freely. Firms trading in timber/forest produce Because of huge demand of timber, it was boon for the timber merchants. They must have seen good growth in their incomes.
Land was given at cheaper rates to the plantation owners. Labour was also made available to them at very low wages. Moreover, new policies were made which prevented the workers from going back to their home villages. It was a win-win situation for the plantation owner.
Kings/British officials engaged in shikar
Killing of ferocious animals; like tiger or wolves was monetarily rewarded. Moreover, hunting was viewed as a sign of bravely and valour. The Kings and British officials must have enjoyed the new found honour in the society.
Question. What are the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and in Java?
Answer : There were certain similarities in the colonial management of forests in Bastar and Java. In both the cases, the traditional rights of forest dwellers were taken away and they were forced to work for their colonial masters. Large scale deforestation took place and felled trees were replaced with monocultural plantations.
Question. Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:
- Agricultural expansion
- Commercial farming
- Tea/Coffee plantations
- Adivasis and other peasant users
Answer : Railways
There was huge demand of sleepers from the railways. In those days sleepers were made from wood. Expansion of the railway network resulted in large scale deforestation.
Shipbuilding was an important industry because ships were integral part of the military power of the British. When the number of oak trees sharply reduced in Britain, Indian forests provided good source of supply. Thus, shipbuilding also contributed towards large scale deforestation in India.
The growing European population meant an increased demand for food grains.
This resulted in expansion of cultivated land in India. More land was cleared of forests to make way for cultivation.
There was increased demand for various raw materials; like cotton, indigo for the expanding industries in Britain. This resulted in large scale commercial farming in India. This could also become possible by clearing forests
Demand for tea and coffee also increased in Britain. The climate of northeastern India and the eastern coast was perfect for plantations. Large areas of forests were cleared for making way for plantations. The British plantation owners were given land on very cheap rates.
Adivasis and other peasant users
Adivasis had always been the protectors of forests and hence they had no role in deforestation. However, some peasants may have utilised the opportunity to expand the cultivated land; as had happened in Java. Moreover, the significant increase in cultivated land also indicates towards clearing of forests for farming.
Question. Why are forests affected by wars?
Answer : The two World Wars had major impacts on forests. More trees were cut to meet the wartime needs of Britain. In Java, the Dutch followed ‘scorched earth’ policy just before the Japanese occupation of the region. They destroyed sawmills and burnt huge piles of giant teak logs. The Japanese continued the exploitation of forests. They forced forest villagers to cut down forests. For many villagers, it was an opportunity to expand cultivated area.
Answer the following questions briefly: (1 marks)
1. What is plantation?
2. What was Forest act of 1878?
3. Mention two effects of Forest Acts on the pastoralists?
4. What was the condition on which some villagers were allowed to stay in the reserved forests ?
5. What was the objective of Dutch management of forests in Java?
6. How did Samin question the state ownership of the forests?
7. Mention one way for conservation of forests in India ?
8. How did new forest laws affect the hunter forest dwellers?
9. What was ‘scorched earth policy’?
Short Answer Questions (3 marks)
1. Why did Samin challenge the Dutch in Java ?
2. Why was Brandis invited in India ? What were his suggestions and how were they implemented?
3. In what ways did British regulate forest trade?
4. How did Indian labour suffer at the British hands in the plantation ?
5. What was the ‘Blandondeinsten system’ ?
6. What was the effect of laying down of railway lines on forests?
7. How were people benefitted with the trade in forest products?
Long Answer Questions (5 marks)
1. Describe the causes, events and effects of the rebellion by the people of Bastar against the colonial rule?
2. Describe the events that led to the revolt in Bastar against the British?
3. How is forest conservation carried out by the Asian and African countries now?
4. How was Java, an Indonesian Island taken over by Dutch and how were its forests affected?
5. Describe the effects of Forest Acts on Kings/British officers engaged in shikar?
6. Who was Samin and how did he protest against the Dutch?
7. How did the peole of Bastir live before 1905? Explain their beliefs and traditions?
Mark and Identify following places on political map of India.
1. Area of Korava, Karacha & Yerukula pastorlist and nomadic communities – Madras
2. Area of forest communities
a) Santhals – Assam
b) Oraons – Jharkhand
c) Gonds – Chattisgarh
3. Places where the following leaders belong:‐
a) Birsa Munda – Chhotanagpur
b) Alluri Sitarama Raju – Andhra Pradesh
c) Gunda Dhur ‐ Kanger
1. Name the products we get from forests.
2. What are the causes of Deforestation.
3. How colonialism was responsible for deforestation?
4. Why forests were cleared for tea, coffee and rubber plantation?
5. Why British cleared the forests for development of railways?
6. What was the Forest Act? What were its results?
7. What is shifting cultivation?
8. Name the local terms for swidden agriculture.
9. What are the harmful effects and benefits of burning forests?
10. Explain the new trades, new employments and new services in trade.
11. What are the main features of the tribal people living in the region of Bastar?
12. Explain the condition of the people living in the Bastar?
13. What were the different forest acts?
14. What are ‘Forest Villages’?
15. What were the different messages by which villagers thought to rebel against the British?
16. What was the reaction of the British?
17. Name the community skilled in forest cutting in Java. Why did this community and the Dutch come into clash with each other?
18. Point out the similarities in the laws for forest control in Indonesia and India.
19. Which country used Atomic weapons during the Second World War and why?
20. Mention the developments that followed the signing of the Non Aggression Pact between the Soviet Union and Germany in 1939.
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CBSE Class 9 Social Science India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Worksheet
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Worksheet for Social Science CBSE Class 9 India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
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India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism worksheet Social Science CBSE Class 9
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India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism CBSE Class 9 Social Science Worksheet
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Worksheet for CBSE Social Science Class 9 India and Contemporary I Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
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