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1. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India. Explain three human activities responsible for soil erosion.
Answer (i) Two human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion are deforestation and overgrazing mining, construction, etc.
(ii) Types of soil Erosion :
(a) Gullies : The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels/gullies. The unfit land caused by gullies is called bad land or ravines.
(b) Sheet erosion : Water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. The top soil is washed away. This process is known as sheet erosion.
2. In which states has mining caused severe land degradation?
Answer Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
3. How can you contribute to minimize the pollution? Explain. Soil as a Resource; Classification of Soils; Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation.
Answer : We can contribute to minimize pollution by : (i) Planting more plants and trees.
(ii) Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar and wind energy.
(iii) Using public transport instead of personal car motor bike etc.
(iv) Saving water and electricity.
4. What are the three stages of resource planning in India?
Answer : (i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
(ii) Evolving a planned structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Match the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
5. Describe any five distinct characteristics of 'Arid soils'.
Answer : (i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
(ii) Sandy in texture and saline in nature.
(iii) Evaporation from this soil is faster, soil lacks humus and moisture.
(iv) Soil occupied by Kankar.
(v) Kankar restricts the infiltration of water.
6. Explain any three factors responsible for soil formation.
Answer : (i) The parent rock is the first factor which provides the basic material for the formation of soil.
(ii) Climate breaks the parent rock into small pieces.
(iii) Vegetation : Plant and animal organisms help in the weathering of the rocks slowly but continuously.
(iv) Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc, contribute to the formation of soil.
(v) Chemical and organic changes take place in the soil.
7. Describe any three measures of controlling land degradation.
Answer : (i) Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help in controlling of land degradation.
(ii) Planting of shelter belts, control on overgrazing, stabilisation of sand dune by growing thorny bushes, are important ways.
(iii) Proper management of wastelands, control of mixing activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub-urban areas. These are some of the methods to check land degradation.
8. Give an example of non-renewable resources.
Answer : Coal/Minerals
9. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give four main features of this type of soil.
Answer : Alluvial soil is found in the entire northern plain it is the most widely spread soil of India. Main features of alluvial soil :
(i) It is formed by the deposition of materials brought down by the himalayan rivers.
(ii) It is highly fertile.
(iii) It consists of various proportion of sand, silt and clay.
(iv) It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime but deficient in organic matter.
10. Discuss the factors responsible for land degradation in India.
Answer : The important factors responsible for land degradation in India are as follows :
(a) Deforestation : By an estimate over one million hectares of forest is lost every year in India.
(b) Erosion: Loss of vegetation cover makes land more susceptible to erosion. Wind and water have left vast tracts of land barren. Water erodes top soil to an extent of around 12,000 million tons per annum.
(c) Over-Irrigation : Successive cropping and over-irrigation, leads to water-logging and consequent salinization and alkalization. This situation mainly arises due to poor drainage.
(d) Floods and Droughts: Drought is both manmade and environment-induced. Man has played a key role in the creation of drought-prone areas by over-exploitation of natural resources like forests, degradation by grazing, excessive withdrawal of ground water, silting of tanks, rivers, etc. Floods, on the other hand, are caused by heavy rains in a very short period. Each situation could have been altered had there been good vegetation cover. Vegetation helps in reducing run-off, increasing infiltration and reducing soil erosion.
(e) Over-grazing: India has the worlds largest cattle population, but not enough pasture land. This has led to serious problems as animals have encroached into forest lands and even agricultural lands. Land degradation due to overgrazing leads to desert like conditions.
(f) Pollution -Pollution of land is caused by disposal of solid waste, refuse from domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. Another major source of land pollution is the creation of derelict land due to mining particularly due to surface and underground mining activities.
11. Give one difference between renewable and non-renewable resources.
Renewable : Replenished by nature e.g., crops and plants. Non-renewable : Which get exhausted after years of use. e.g., crude oil.
12. Why is soil considered as a resource? Explain with five arguments.
Answer : (i) Soil is considered as a resource because it is used to satisfy our needs.
(ii) It is the most important renewable natural resource.
(iii) It is the medium of plant growth. (iv) It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
13. Highlights the reason for land being known as an utmost important natural resources.
Answer : Land is a resource of utmost importance due to following reasons: It’s a fixed factor of production and supports all economic activities. It also supports natural vegetation wildlife and various other resources.
14. What are the three stages of resource planning in India? Why is it essential to have resource planning?
Answer : Resource planning is a technique or skill for proper utilization of resources.
(a) As resources are limited, their planning is necessary so that we can use them properly and also save them for our future generation.
(b) Resources are not only limited but they are distributed over different parts of the country.
(c) Resource planning is also essential for production of resources and to protect them from over exploitation. Also, Refer to answer 10.