CBSE Class 10 Social Science HOTs The Age of Industrialisation

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MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialization

Question : Which of the following best defines a jobber?
(a) Employed by industrialists to get new recruits
(b) Old trusted worker
(c) Person of authority and power
(d) Controlled lives of workers
Answer : A

Question : This city on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea ports :
(a) Dwarka
(b) Surat
(c) Bhavnagar
(d) Porbandar
Answer : B

Question : Which neighbouring district of Mumbai provided an overwhelming majority of its mill workers in 1911?
(a) Sindhudurg
(b) Nasik
(c) Ratnagiri
(d) Thane
Answer : C

Question : First country to undergo industrial revolution is:
(a) Japan
(b) Britain
(c) Germany
(d) France
Answer : B

Question :  Which of the following group of industries was the dynamic industries of England during its earliest phase of industrialization?
(a) Cotton and metals
(b) Cotton and silk
(c) Silk and footwears
(d) Footwears and glass 
Answer : A

Question :  The Spinning Jenny was devised by :
(a) James Hargreaves
(b) Richard Arkwright
(c) Newcomen
(d) James Watt
Answer : A

Question :  In 1911, 67 per cent of the large industries were located in which of the following places in India :
(a) Bengal and Bombay
(b) Surat and Ahmedabad
(c) Delhi and Bombay
(d) Patna and Lucknow
Answer : A

Question : What is the name of this machine and who invented it?

CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation_1

(a) Weaving machine by Charles
(b) Flying shuttle by John key
(c) Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney
(d) Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves
Answer : D

Question : What is Bourgeoisie? 
(a) Upper middle class
(b) Nobles
(c) Lower middle class
(d) Labourers
Answer : A
Explanation: Bourgeoisie: A term used to describe the upper middle class.
 
Question : Give name of the companies with the help of following information:
i. It is a European Managing Agency
ii. This Agency mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them 
(a) Andrew Yule
(b) Bird Yule
(c) Tata Iron and Steel Company
(d) East India Company
Answer : A
Explanation: Andrew Yule
i. It is a European Managing Agency
ii. This Agency mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them

Question : The cotton mill in England was created by :
(a) Richard Arkwright
(b) James Watt
(c) Seth Hukumchand
(d) Henry Patullo
Answer : A

Question : What is the name of this machine and who invented it?
(a) Weaving machine by Charles
(b) Flying shuttle by John key
(c) Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney
(d) Spinning Jenny by Richard Arkwright
Answer : D

Question :  The Spinning Jenny was designed in the year :
(a) 1746
(b) 1647
(c) 1674
(d) 1764
Answer : D

Question :  From which of the following trade did the early entrepreneurs make a fortune?
(a) Textile trade
(b) China trade
(c) Trade in tea
(d) Industries
Answer : B

Question :  The paid servants of the East India Company was :
(a) Seth
(b) Mamlatdar
(c) Gomastha
(d) Lambardar
Answer : C

Question :  A person who staples or sorts wool according to its fibre is called which of the following terms?
(a) Stapler
(b) Fuller
(c) Caller
(d) None of these
Answer : A

Question :  18th Century India witnessed the decline of which port town?
(a) Surat
(b) Bombay
(c) Calcutta
(d) Madras
Answer : A

Question :  This town in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports :
(a) Hoogly
(b) Porbandar
(c) Dwarka
(d) Masulipatnam
Answer : A

Question : The two Parsis of Bombay who built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their wealth partly from exports to China :
(a) James Hargreaves and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata
(b) Seth Hukumchand and Dinshaw Petit
(c) Dwarkanath Tagore and G.D. Birla
(d) Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata 
Answer : D

Question : The Spinning Jenny devised in the year :
(a) 1746
(b) 1647
(c) 1674
(d) 1764
Answer : D

Question : This city on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea ports :
(a) Dwarka
(b) Surat
(c) Bhavnagar
(d) Porbandar
Answer : B

 

True / False

Question : R.J. Tata set up the first iron and steel plant at Jamshedpur in India. (True/False)
Answer : False

Question : In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside. (True/False)
Answer : True

 

Assertion and Reasoning Based Questions

Mark the option which is most suitable :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

Question : Assertion : When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles.
Reason : The label was a mark of quality. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold letters on the label, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
Answer : (a) 

Question : Assertion : The first symbol of the new era was cotton.
Reason : In Victorian Britain, the industrialists did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment.
Answer : (b) 

Question : Assertion : The consolidation of East India Company power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile exports from India.
Reason : British cotton industries had not yet expanded and Indian fine textiles were in great demand in Europe.
Answer : (a) 

Question : Assertion : The cotton weavers of India flourished with the Manchester imports.
Reason : With the American Civil War, the cotton supplies from US to Britain increased.
Answer : (d) 

 

Mark the option which is most suitable:

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question : Assertion : From 1906, the export of Indian yarn to China declined.
Reason : After the First World War, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market.
Answer : (b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.

Question : Assertion : When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles.
Reason : The label was a mark of quality. When buyers saw 'MADE IN MANCHESTER' written in bold on the label, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
Answer : (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question : Assertion : In the twentieth century, handloom cloth production expanded steadily.
Reason : This was partly because of technological changes.
Answer : (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question : Assertion : The cotton weavers of India flourished with the Manchester imports.
Reason : With the American Civil War, the cotton supplies from US to Britain decreased.
Answer : (d) A is false but R is true.

 

One Word Answer Type Questions

Question : Why did Britain impose  protective tariff? 
Answer : Tp protect British Industries
 
Question : Explain the reason for the popularity of ‘GO EAST MOVEMENT’. 
Answer : Investment in the eastern countries
 
QuestionHow did farming methods change due to Industrialisation? 
Answer : Mechanizations in farming
 
Question : What is meant by Trade Unions? 
Answer : Association of workers
 
Question : Why did the workers in Britain attack the spinning jenny? 
Answer :  Insecurity of jobs
 
Question : Who were the jobbers and explain their functions? 
Answer : Agents to recruit new workers

Question : What did England export to China ?
Answer : Opium.

Question : Who founded the first iron and steel works in India ?
Answer : J. N. TATA.

Question : What was the main work of a Jobber ?
Answer : To arrange workers.

Question : When were the railways expanded in England ?
Answer : 1840's

Question : When were the railways in the English occupied colonies expanded ?
Answer : 1860

Question : When did the Indian commercial activities started to show signs of decline ?
Answer : 1750's

Question : Name the new ports that grew post 1750’s in India under the Company.
Answer : Bombay and Calcutta.

Question : How was the Indian merchants and bankers involved in the export trade of India before 1750s? 
Answer : Financing Production , carrying goods, supplying exporters
 
Question : How does the industrialization help in raising the level or the standard of living? 
Answer : More employment , earning foreign exchange
 
QuestionWhat was the result of the import of ‘Manchester Cloth’ to India? 
Answer : Decline of Indian industries
 
Question : What was the result of 1st World War on Indian industry? 
Answer : Helped to increase production in India
 
Question : How did industrial revolution in England affect Indian economy?
Answer :  Indian economy suffers , Indian markets were flooded with British Goods
 
Question : What was the aim behind establishing Chamber of Commerce? 
Answer : To Protect the interest of Indian business class
 
Question : Why was the system of advancing loans to the weavers adopted by the English company?
Answer : To get uninterrupted supply of goods
 
Question : Why did some industrialists in the 19 th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines? 
Answer : Maintenance of machines were expensive
 
Question : Why did industrial production in India increase during the 1st World War? 
Answer : Europe was busy in producing war materials . Indian industries got sufficient orders from British

Question : What was the symbol of the new era ?
Answer : Cotton. 

Question : Who established the first cotton mill ?
Answer : Richard Arkwright. 

Question : Why was there a dearth of raw cotton in India ?
Answer : High cotton exports. 

Question : When did the first cotton mill come up in India ?
Answer : 1854 

Question : What were the products that the European Managing Companies were interested in ?
Answer : Coffee plantations, tea plantations, indigo, jute and mining. 

Question : Name some famous weaves or handlooms related to India.
Answer : Banarasi sarees, Baluchari sarees, Silk sarees. 

Question : When was the Elgin Mill started ?
Answer : 1860s 

Question : When did the cotton production in India doubled ?
Answer : From 1900 to 1912. 

Question : What helped the textile workers to increase their productivity ?
Answer : The Fly Shuttle. 

Question : Where is the Elgin Mill located ?
Answer : Kanpur. 

 
 

Very Short Questions for Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialization

Question : Why the Indian weavers were deprived of good cotton?
Answer : As American Civil War broke out, the cotton supplies to England from America declined. Thus, superior quality of cotton from India was exported to England, leaving the weavers in India helpless.

Question : Match the following items given in column A with those in column B.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation_4

CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation_5

Answer : (a) 4, (b) 3, (c) 2, (d) 1

Question : How was the relationship between the Gomasthas and the weavers?
Answer : The Gomasthas were paid agents of the English Company who were outsiders and not from the villages. They were arrogant and often marched into the villages with sepoys to beat up the weavers and craftsmen if they were late in supplying products.

Question : What was the problem faced by Indian weavers in the 1860s ?
Answer : The Indian weavers could not get sufficient amount of good quality of cotton.

Question : _________were oriented to produce uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market.
Answer : Machines.

Question : Who were Gomasthas ?
Answer : Gomasthas described as an Indian agent of the English East India Company who was paid to supervise weavers and craftsmen, collect supplies and deliver finished goods to the company at fixed rates. He always examined the quality of the cloth.

Question : Why were wages low in England during eighteenth century ?
Answer : In England during the Victorian Age, there was no shortage of human labour. Unemployed people, farmers and vagrants often moved through the cities in search of work. So, the industrialists had an ample supply of labour and no problem of high wage cost.

Question : Define the term ‘Carding.’ 
Answer : Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibers such as cotton or wool to produce a continuous web suitable for subsequent processing like spinning. 

Question : Name the two industrialists of Bombay who built huge industrial empires during nineteenth century.
Answer : Dinshaw Petit and Jamshetjee Nusserwanjee Tata. 

Question : Why were the women in England against Spinning Jenny ?
Answer : Women feared that they might lose their livelihood and these machines would overtake their positions so they started detesting the use of spinning Jenny in the factories. 

Question : Why the merchants and traders did turn their attention towards the countryside for production in Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ?
Answer : Production could not be expanded in the town because the urban trade and craft guilds regulated these issues in the towns strictly. Moreover, they did not allow free entry and lenient rules for outsiders. 

Question : Mention any two advantages of a fly shuttle. 
Answer : The following are the advantages of a fly shuttle 
a. It speeded up production
b. The labour demand reduced.
 
Question : Name the author of the music book, 'Dawn of the century? 
Answer : In 1900, a popular music publisher E.T. Paul produced a music book that had a picture on the cover page announcing the ‘Dawn of the Century’
 
Question : How did urbanisation help create opportunities?
Answer : Urban activities like building up of roads, laying down railway lines, construction of new railways stations as railways were expanded too, drainage and sewers laid and river embankments created opportunities where people got employment. 

 

 

Short Questions for Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialization

Question : Why was a jobber employed? How did he misuse his power?
Answer : Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often, the jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. Therefore, the jobber became a person with some authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for such favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Question : Why merchants from towns in Europe began to move countryside in Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ?
Answer : In the Seventeenth and eighteenth century the merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside because the availability of raw materials was cheap and the labourers were also available for more production.

Question : Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Answer : The term 'proto' refers to the first or nascent form of something. By the term 'proto-industrialisation', we mean the period in which the European countries produced goods for the foreign markets on a wider scale. This phase started before the development of factories in the European countries. In the proto-industrial period, hand-made products were made for the international market.

Question : What was the impact of colonisation of India on the Indian traders ?
Answer : As colonial control over Indian trade tightened, the space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited. They were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains, raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo required by the British. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business. The points are enumerated as follows:
(i) The European companies gradually gained power - first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade.
(ii) It resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated. Exports from these ports fell dramatically.
(iii) The credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local bankers slowly became bankrupt.

Question : What were the roles of trade guilds?
Answer : The roles of trade guilds are enumerated as follows:
(i) Trained craftsmen, maintain control over production, regulate prices
(ii) Enjoyed monopoly rights to produce and trade certain products
(iii) Had the right to restrict entry of outsiders.

Question : How did the Industrial pace change after the First World War in India? 
Answer : Till the First World War the industrial growth was very slow as the early cotton mills in India produced coarse cotton yarn rather than fabric. Only imported yarn was of the superior variety. By the first decade of the twentieth century, a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization. Industrialisation in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. The industrial pace in India changed drastically because:
a. During First World War British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Due to this reason Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
b. As the war prolonged Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs.
c. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Over the war years industrial production boomed.
 
Question : How international financial systems led to periodic debt crisis in the developing countries? 
Answer :
i. From the mid-1970s, the international financial system also changed in important ways.
ii. Earlier, developing countries could turn to international institutions for loans and development assistance.
iii. But now, they were forced to borrow from western commercial banks and private lending institutions.
iv. This led to periodic debt crisis in the developing world, and lower incomes and increased poverty, especially in Africa and Latin America.
 

Question : Correct the following statement and rewrite:
A series of inventions in the twentieth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling).
Answer : A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling). 

Question : Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Mathew Boulton improved the steam engine produced by Newcomen and patented the new engine in 1781.
Answer : James Watt improved the steam engine produced by Newcomen and patented the new engine in 1781. 

Question : How did the abundance of labour in the market effect the lives of the workers in the nineteenth century? Explain with examples.
Answer :  Abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of the workers in Britain in following ways:
(i) The work available in most of the industries were seasonal. So workers had long period without work. Many returned to the countryside. But most of them looked for odd jobs.
(ii) Most of the workers had to wait for weeks or more to get job. They had to spend nights under bridges or in night shelters.
(iii) Wages had increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century. When prices rose sharply during the prolonged Napoleonic war, the real value of what the workers earned fell significantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things. 

Question : How was foreign trade from India conducted before the age of machine industries? Explain
Answer :  (i) Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textile. Coarser cotton was produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India. Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, Eastern Persia and Central Asia. (ii) Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the North West frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts. (iii) A vibrant sea trade operated through the main precolonial ports. Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatnam on the Coromandel Coast and Hooghly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.  

Question : Why did technological changes occur slowly in Britain in the early nineteenth century? Explain any three reasons. 
Answer : (i) New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it.
(ii) The machines often broke down and repairs were costly.
(iii) They were not much effective as compared to cheap labour.   

Question : Describe any three main reasons for the decline of textile exports from India in the 19th century.
Answer :  . (i) Britain imposed duties on cotton textiles, thus export market declined.
(ii) Exports of British goods to India increased. The Manchester goods flooded Indian markets.
(iii) The machine-made goods were cheaper and weavers could not compete with them.
(iv) By 1850, exports from most weaving regions declined. 

Question : Complete the following table with correct information with regard to Spinning Jenny:

CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation_2

CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation_3

Answer : (A) James Hargreaves, (B) 1764 

Question :"By the first decade of the twentieth century a series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India". State any three such changes. 4.6 Market for Goods 
Answer :  (i) Swadeshi and Boycott Movements : The launching of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements after the Partition of Bengal provided impetus to Indian industries. There was an increase in the demand of Indian goods, especially of clothes.
(ii) Industrial groups : Industrial groups had also organized themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurizing the government to increase tariff, the protection, and grant other concessions.
(iii) Decline of exports to China : From 1906 the export of Indian yarn to China declined since produces from Chinese and Japanese mills had flooded the Chinese markets.

Question : What was 'Proto-indusrialization'? Explain the importance of proto-industrialization.
Answer :  Proto-industrialization refers to the system of industries that existed in Europe before the arrival of modern machine run factories. Large scale production took place for an international market. It was based in the countryside, not in factories.
Effects:
(i) Open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed so common people had no alternative sources of income.
(ii) Many had small plots of land which could not provide work for all family members.
(iii) Merchants offered them advances for which they agreed.
(iv) They got a source of income which supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. 

Question : "Getting a job in factories was always difficult in the 19th century." Justify the statement comparing the case of England and India.
Answer : (i) England : The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing network of friendship and kin relationship. A person was more likely to get a job if he had a friend or a relative working in the factory. Many who did not have connections had to wait for weeks spending nights under bridges or in the night shelters.
(ii) India : In India, the number of job seekers was always more than the jobs available. Industrialist usually employed jobbers, who were old and trusted workers to get new recruits. The jobber got people from his village, ensured them job and helped them settle in the city. Jobbers eventually began demanding money for the favours they showed and controlled the lives of workers. 

Question : Explain any three causes which led to the decline of Indian cotton textiles in the early nineteenth century.
Answer : 
i) The British cotton manufactures began to expand.
(ii) British manufacturers pressurized the Government to restrict cotton imports.
(iii) Manufacturers began to search the overseas markets for selling their cloth.
(iv) Indian textiles faced stiff competition in other international market.
(v) There was a decline in the share of the textile.
(vi) Tariffs were imposed on cloth imports into Britain. 

Question : What led to rise of Bombay and Calcutta ports in the 9th century? Explain.
Answer :  Before the machine age, the Indian textile industry, specially cotton and silk goods, dominated the international market. Indian merchant and bankers were involved in the export trade of textiles. Later arrival of European traders like East India Company broke down the network of exports controlled by Indian merchants. It led to decline of old ports like Surat and Hoogly and the growth of new industrial towns like Bombay and Calcutta. 

 

 

Long Questions for Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialization

Question : Why did London city dwellers become rebellious during 19th century?
Answer :  London city dwellers become rebellious during 19th century because :
(i) The vast mass of one room hose occupied by the poor were seen as a serious threat to public health.
(ii) Cities were overcrowded, badly ventilated, and lacked sanitation.
(iii) There were worries about fire hazards created by poor housing.
(iv) There was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the Russian Revolution in 1917.
(v) Worker's mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious. 

Question : Describe the condition of the workers in nineteenth century in England.
Answer : (i) Labour was in abundance.
(ii) Job opportunities were few.
(iii) Job seekers who came from villages had to spend the night under bridges or in night shelters and they had no place to stay in the city.
(iv) Much of the work was seasonal in nature such as book binding.
(v) Wages were low and life was difficult when prices of goods in the city rose sharply.
(vi) Workers had to look for odd jobs when they could not find proper employment in factories.

Question : What is proto-industrialization? Explain the conditions in 18th century English county side that created conditions for protoindustrialization.
Answer : Proto -industrialization was the early phase of industrialization in Europe. Before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale production for an international market. This was not based on factories. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production within the cities. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful and prevented the entry of merchants. During the 18th century this was a time when open fields were disappearing. Cottagers and poor peasants who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed to take up the work. This also provided extra income that supplemented their .meagre income from small fields. 

Question : What advantage did the hand labour had over machines in Victorian Britain? 
Answer : . Hand Labour was preferred over machines in Victorian England because :
(a) There was less space for installing machines.
(b) Women labourers were not trained to operate machines.
(c) Manual labour was cheaper than machines as large number of migrant labor had come to cities.
(d) The Queen had banned the use of machines in factories to create job opportunities for the poor.
(e) Machines often broke down and their repair was expensive.
(f) In seasonal industries, where production fluctuated with the seasons, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed.
(g) The variety of products required in the market could not be produced by the machines available at that time.
In mid-nineteenth century, Britain, for instance, 500 varieties of hammers were produced and 45 kinds of axes, these required human skill, and not mechanical technology. 

Question : What problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century? Explain. 
Answer : The problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century are as follows:
a. Import duties: The export market of Indian cotton weaver collapsed due to increase in import duties on them in England.
b. Cheap competitive products: Their local market shrank as they were flooded with cheap Manchester imports.
c. Insufficent raw cotton: The local weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.
d. High prices: When the Americans civil war broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. Indian weavers were forced to buy cotton at very high prices.
e. Machine-made goods: By the end of nineteenth century, factories in India began production and flooded the market with machine goods. This created the problem of survival for weaving industries.

Question : Explain any five causes of Industrial Revolution in England.
Answer : The five causes of Industrial Revolution in England are enumerated as follows:
(i) Growing international markets in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries led to the demand of more products not just inside the country but in other colonies and countries as well.
(ii) New inventions: Series of new inventions by James Watt, James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright contributed significantly in the growth of factories and production process hastened as well as smoothened.
(iii) Availability of raw material: Availability of raw material from the countryside and new freshly acquired colonies like America, India etc. made production process easier.
(iv) Availability of capital for investment was easily available as they had earned huge profits from trade and overseas investments.
(v) Increase in demand for a diverse range of products both inside the country as well as in other countries was a significant factor. This made people invest in business and factories produced more.

Question : What was the impact of colonisation of India on the Indian traders ?
Answer : The points are stated as follows :
(i) As colonial control over Indian trade tightened, the space within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited. They were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains, raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo - required by the British. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business.
(ii) The European companies gradually gained power first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade.
(iii) It resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated. Exports from these ports fell dramatically.
(iv) The credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local bankers slowly became bankrupt.

Question :  Differentiate between Proto-Industrialisation and Industrialisation.
Answer : 

CBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation_6

Question : Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Answer : In this segment, I intend to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Britain had successfully regulated and dominated the trade in cotton (raw material), cotton fabrics of coarser or line quality. Britain had set up markets throughout the colonies for selling the Manchester and Liverpool made cotton textiles that were relatively cheaper than hand-made cotton textile of colonised countries. By using an imperialist tool, Britain had found ways to garner huge amount of profit from the trade in cotton. Due to an ardent process of colonisation. Indian weavers became indebted to the East India Company. At the same time, the Gomasthas compounded the problems of Indian weavers. With the advent of Industrialisation in England, the cotton textiles mills and factories permeated the country. Therefore, England carved a unique space in the global economic history for more than five centuries due to the presence of cotton trade.

Question : Assess the role of First World War in improving the industrial growth in India.
Answer : The First World War paved the path for some sort of industrial growth in India. Small industries and factories came up to fulfill the needs of the army men and other war needs. While on the other hand, as Britain was catering to the demands of the war on the front. Indian industrialists, businessmen were investing in the country. Swadeshi too helped to boost the weaving and spinning industry again in the country. The cottage industries got an opportunity to manufacture for the home market while the British were busy handling war needs in their country. As the war continued, many new factories came up in India and many people were employed. This gave an impetus to the industrial conditions in India. 

Question : Select any one industry in your region and find out its history. How has the technology changed ? Where do the workers come from ? How are the products advertised and marketed ? Try and talk to the employers and some workers to get their views about the industry's history.
Answer : In this segment, I aim to choose a prominent industry of clothing and bedding. The Bombay Dyeing (full name: The Bombay Dyeing and Mfg. Co. Ltd) was established in 1879. was set up by the Wadia Group and gained popularity in the matter of textiles. The Bombay Dyeing is one of India's biggest makers of textile materials. The Bombay Dyeing and Manufacturing Company Limited is a holding organisation that attempts to work with cotton and mixed cotton materials. It is responsible to assemble sheet materials, pads, resting, packs, land exercises and collecting of Power Sianle Fiber (PSF). The varied segments of the company include Textile, Polyester and Real Estate. The topographical segments include India and the rest of the world. 'The company offers Single Bed. Double Bed, King-Size Red. Bath Towel, Hand Towel. Face Towel. Towel Sets, Bathrobe, Duvet Cover, Blankets, Comforters and Diwan Set. Its offerings incorporate Snow While, Tulip, Santino, Reverie, Super Ultra. Honeycomb, Floral Fiesta, Cardinal, Kternia, Spree, Rasso and Joanna. The plants of the company include a material handling section and is headquartered in Pune. It also incorporates the PSF Plant that is based in Maharashtra and Entrance Investment Company Limited is an auxiliary unit of the company. The current executive of the company is Nusli N. Wadia. In March 2011, Jehangir "Jeh" N. Wadia, the younger son of Nusli Wadia became the overseeing chief of Wadia Group's lead, Bombay Dyeing and Manufacturing Company, At the same time, the senior son of Nusli Wadia, Ness Wadia surrendered the post of joint MD of the company. The organization was placed 68th in the Business India Super 100 rundown in 1997 and was placed 300th in the ET 500 rundown in 2010. The Bombay Dyeing organization bolsters many occasions, such as Bombay Dyeing Gladrag Mrs. India Challenge and many more.

Question :  Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Answer : India witnessed increased industrial production during the First World War due to following reasons :
(i) British industries became busy in producing and supplying war needs. Hence, they stopped exporting British goods or clothes for colonial markets like that in India.
(ii) It was a good opportunity for Indian industries to fill in empty Indian markets with their products. Therefore, industrial production in India increased.
(iii) Also the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply the war needs like jute bags, cloth or army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles, etc.
(iv) The increased demands of variety of products led to the setting up of new factories and old ones increased their production.
(v) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. These were the various reasons responsible for the boom in the industrial production in India during the First World War.

Question : Why did the villagers started producing commodities for the merchants in the countryside ?
Answer : In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the Umns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market. This was the time when open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who were earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for new sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So, when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.

Question : Where did the workers come from to work in the industries in India ?
Answer : In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often mill workers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals. Over time, as news of employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in the mills. From the hinted Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta.

Question : How did the First World War prove to be a boom to the Indian industries ?
OR
Explain the impact of First World War on the Indian Industries ?
Answer : The impact of the First World War on the Indian industries is stated below:
(i) The war created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined.
(ii) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a lots of other items.
(iii) New factories were set up and old India and the contemporary world ones ran multiple shifts.
(iv) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years industrial production boomed.
(v) The economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting, foreign manufacturers and capturing the home market.

Question : Industrialization gave birth to Imperialism. Justify the statement with three arguments.
Answer :  'Industrialization gave birth to Imperialism.
(i) Imperialism followed industrialization.
(ii) Industrialization chiefly needed the constant supply of raw-materials. The finished goods needed to be sold at the same speed.
(iii) The industrialized countries had introduced heavy import duties as protective tariffs to check the import from other countries.
(iv) Faced with the problem of finding new markets for their products, the producer nations choose such countries where industrialization had not yet happened.
(v) Hence a race for bringing those areas under their effective occupation or effective influence started among the various industrialized nations.
(vi) As a consequence, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, etc. set up their colonies in Asia, Africa, South America, etc.
(vii) These colonies served two purposes of being the suppliers of cheap raw materials and an easy market for their finished goods. 

Question : Explain the following:
(i) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(ii) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(iii) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
(iv) The East India Company appointed Gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
Answer : (i) Women workers in Britain launched an attack on the Spinning Jenny because it could spin many spindles with one wheel. As a matter of fact, the rate of productivity augmented and the phase of women employment in this field decreased at a rapid pace. This event angered the women and they attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(ii) The trade and commerce guilds regulated market, raw material units and production of goods in the towns. This augmented the problems of the merchants who aimed to increase the rate of production by inducting more employees. Therefore, they turned to peasants and artisans who were domiciled in villages.
(iii) By the end of the eighteenth century, the port of Bombay was established by the European colonies. The imperialist powers wanted to control the sea trade of export and they did not want to use the old port of Surat. Therefore, the sea trade from the Surat port declined.
(iv) Indian weavers not only produced coarser clothes for the East India Company, but they also produced the same quality of cloth for the European companies and local Indian merchants. The East India Company aimed to wield control over the cloth production. As a matter of fact, the Gomasthas were appointed to supervise the weavers and gave them loan in advance to buy raw materials.

Question :  “Series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India by the early twentieth century.“ Analyze the statement.
Answer : As the swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff protection and grant other concessions. From 1906, moreover, the export of Indian yarn to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market. So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912. Yet, till the First World War, industrial growth was slow. The war created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.

Question : How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Answer : After establishing political power in India, the East India Company tried to acquire right to cotton textile and silk goods trade. It also started to procure regular supplies of these goods from Indian weavers. This could be achieved by them after taking a series of steps. First, they established their management and a direct control over the weavers by hiring their paid servants called Gomasthas. Gomasthas supervised weavers, examined the quality of goods and ensured regular supplies. Second, the Company prevented weavers from dealing with their buyers by giving them 'advances' against purchase orders. Thus, the weavers after taking loans could not sell their cloth to any other trader and had to work under the Company's Gomasthas.

Question : Industrialisation brought a negative impact on women. What are the opinions?
Answer : Before the onset of Industrialisation, women too worked in different sectors. Weaving, spinning, dyeing as well as other small crafts work. However, with the coining of new inventions and machines due to Industrial revolution these women were deprived of work in the weaving and spinning factories. They detested the use of spinning jenny and other machines. Thus, they became unemployed and lost their sources of income.

Question : “India became a supplier of raw materials instead of finished products.” Discuss the statement.
Answer : The points regarding this are enumerated as follows:
(i) The industries in England required large amount of raw materials. The resources were sent from India. This affected the availability of resources within the country.
(ii) Finer quality of cotton, and silk were exported to England and the artisans were left with poorer quality. The products made by the Indian artisans and weavers were very poor in quality.
(iii) As the standard of the quality of products decreased, Indian aristocrats and elites started purchasing more of machine made goods, which were imported from England.
(iv) This led to the decline of weaving and other indigenous industries of India. Thus, the phase of de-industrialisation started.
(v) There was a dearth of resources available in the country due to incessant exports. This put a heavy pressure on the artisans. They had to buy resources at extremely high rates. which most of the craftsmen could not afford. Thus, they had to stop producing the products and look for other alternatives.

Question : In a country like India where population was high and labour easily available, do you think it suffered more than the other colonised countries under Britain? Comment with arguments.
Answer : India, as a colony, suffered more than the other colonies under Britain during that time. The farmers were exploited. They had to do away with their farming occupation and work in the factories that came up in the cities. The population of India was high. This made sure that the supply of labour was always high and the manual workers were so many in numbers that the British employed them at low cost. This, in turn, reduced the wages of the workers. The farming areas were brought under the control of the British officials too. So, the farmers were forced to grow cash crops instead of food crops. These cash crops were used as resources in India as well as exported outside. The families of the farmers were worst hit as they could not afford to buy food for themselves, were suffering from malnutrition and poverty. The weavers were unable to cope up with the demands of the market. The indigenous handicrafts of the country declined. They switched to working in the cities in the factories for fixed wages in order to survive.

Question : “Consumers are created, with advertisements” – support this statement with three examples. 
OR
Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in nineteenth century.
Answer : (i) Advertisement : Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. Advertisements played a part in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture.
(ii) Labelling : When the Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. The label was needed to make the place of manufacture, and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. The label was also to be a mark of quality.
(iii) Images of Gods : Images of lndian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on these labels. It was as if the association with gods gave divine approval to the goods being sold. The imprinted image of Krishna or Saraswati was also intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to Indian people.
(iv) Figures of important personages : Figures of emperors and nawabs adorned advertisement and calendars. The message very often seemed to say: if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned.

Question : Why the system of advance proved to be harmful for the weaver?
Answer : (i) The weavers lost the opportunity to bargain.
(ii) Leasing out of land became a common practice among the weavers. This gave rise to a sub-category of peasants.
(iii) The weavers were often tortured and exploited by the Gomasthas. There were repeated clashes between the Gomasthas and the weavers.
(iv) Most of the weavers who leased out their lands had to depend on others for food or sometimes had to buy them too. It increased the overall expenditure of the products.

Question : Write a short essay on why do you think Industrialisation destroyed our economy more than it helped.
Answer : The Industrial Revolution was a boon to the whole world and to India also. Often the East India Company has been criticised for changing the economic set up of our country. This is true to a large extent. They did destroy our economic fabric. The weavers were exploited to such a level that they were left with no work. They could not compete with the machine made products, leaving them unemployed. The traders and Indian merchants were at loss too. They had to run trading activities according to the rules and regulations of the Company. They had lost their trading freedom and monopolies. The Gomasthas also made life hell for the weavers. They tortured the weavers and exploited them. The weavers were forced to lease out their land that made them dependent on others for food supplies. The income of the weavers and farmers also declined steadily resulting in poverty, malnourishment and poor standard of life in the country.

 

Source/Case Based Questions 

Question : Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows:

Source A- Situation before the Industrial Revolution Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as protoindustrialisation. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market. With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.
Source B- Series of inventions in the eighteenth century. A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling). They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made the production of stronger threads and yarn possible. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. Till this time, as you have seen, cloth production was spread all over the countryside and carried out within village households.
Source C- Pace of Industrial Change The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly cotton and metals. Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840s. After that the iron and steel industry led the way. With the expansion of railways, in England from the 1840s and in the colonies from the 1860s, the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873 Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about £ 77 million, double the value of its cotton export. The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries.

(i) How was the demand for goods began growing before Industrial Revolution?
Answer :The demand for goods began growing before Industrial Revolution with the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world.

(ii) How the series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of production?
Answer : The series of inventions enhanced the output per worker, which enabled each worker to produce more and they also made the production of threads and yarns possible.

(iii) Which was the leading sector that grew faster in the first phase of industrialisation?
Answer : Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840s.


Question : Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: 
The history of many business groups goes back to trade with China. From the late eighteenth century, as you have read in your book last year, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. Having earned through trade, some of these businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India. In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s. Tagore's enterprises sank along with those of others in the wider business crises of the 1840s, but later in the nineteenth century many of the China traders became successful industrialists. In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata who built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England. Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China. So did the father as well as grandfather of the famous industrialist G.D. Birla. 

Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option: 

(i) The first cotton mill came up in India in:
(a) Poona in 1854
(b) Bombay in 1854
(c) Ahmedabad in 1854
(d) Calcutta in 1854
Answer : (b) Bombay in 1854 

(ii) Which of the following was not a popular destination of Indian industrialists in 19th century ?
(a) China
(b) Burma
(c) Middle east and East Africa
(d) Central European Countries
Answer : (d) Central European Countries 

(iii) Find out the incorrect statement from the following:
(a) Large part of opium produced in India sent to China not to Europe.
(b) Main purpose of opium trade was to acquire tea to sell in European market.
(c) Opium trade helped to develop industries in India.
(d) Indians were the major players in trade with China as compare to European traders.
Answer : (d) Indians were the major players in trade with China as compare to European traders. 

(iv) Find out the correct statement from the following:
(a) Colonial government encouraged Indians to sell opium in China and Chinese tea in Europe.
(b) Colonial government encouraged Indians to sell manufactured goods in Europe.
(c) Colonial government encouraged Indians to sell raw material and food grains in Europe.
(d) Opium was having huge demand in China for medicinal purpose and produced by India.
Answer : (c) Colonial government encouraged Indians to sell raw material and food grains in Europe. 

 

Creating Based Questions

Question : Use the information provided along with the terms given in the box to form a pathway to show the role of a jobber. Also include information that is not mentioned below to complete it. 
Jobs, multiple mills, city, money, crisis, helped workers settle in the city, gifts Getting jobs was difficult..... demand for workers increased but jobs were still less..... entry was restricted in mills..... jobber was employed to get new recruits..... controlled lives of workers. 
Answer : Getting jobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied and the demand for workers increased. The number of people seeking work were always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often the jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of crisis. The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for his favour and controlling the lives of workers.

Question :  Use the information provided along with the terms given in the box to form a coherent passage to show what new problems the weavers faced in the 1860s. Also include information that is not mentioned below to complete it.
Sufficient cotton supplies, American civil war, raw cotton exports, exorbitant prices By 1860s problems rose..... good quality..... broke out..... cotton supplies were cut off..... exports from India increased... price of raw cotton shot up..... weavers could not pay.
Answer : By the 1860s, weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this situation, weavers could not pay. 

 

Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:

In the countryside poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants. This was a time when open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival,  gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed. By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources. Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside. A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool stapler, and carried it to the spinners; the yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, fullers, and then to dyers. The finishing was done in London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market. London in fact came to be known as a finishing centre.

Question :  What is proto-industrialisation?
Answer : The phase of industrialisation before the industrial revolution is referred as proto-industrialisation.

Question : Differentiate between stapler and fuller?
Answer : A stapler is a person who ‘staples’ or sorts wool according to its fibre, whereas fuller is a person who fulls or gathers cloth by pleating.

Question : Why London came to be known as finishing centre in the eighteenth century?
Answer : During eighteenth century, finishing of clothes was done in London before the merchants sold the clothes in the international market. Thus, London came to be known as finishing centre. Source/Extract Based Questions


Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:

Source A- The Early Entrepreneurs The history of many business groups goes back to trade with China. From the late eighteenth century, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. Having earned through trade, some of these businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India. In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s. Tagore’s enterprises sank along with those of others in the wider business crises of the 1840s, but later in the nineteenth century many of the China traders became successful industrialists. In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata who built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
Source B- Small-scale Industries Predominate While factory industries grew steadily after the war, large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them – about 67 per cent in 1911 were located in Bengal and Bombay. Over the rest of the country, small-scale production continued to predominate. Only a small proportion of the total industrial labour force worked in registered factories: 5 per cent in 1911 and 10 per cent in 1931. The rest worked in small workshops and household units, often located in alleys and bylanes, invisible to the passer-by.
Source C- Market for Goods One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements. As you know, advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. Today we live in a world where advertisements surround us. They appear in newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls, television screens. But if we look back into history we find that from the very beginning of the industrial age, advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture.
Source A- The Early Entrepreneurs

Question : How did the early entrepreneurs accumulate capital for running their cloth mills?
Answer : The early entrepreneurs accumulated capital through their other trade networks. For example- Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata who built huge industrial empire in India, accumulated his initial wealth partly from exports to China and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
Source B- Small-scale Industries Predominate

Question : What was the reason behind the predominance of small scale industries?
Answer : The reason behind the predominance of small scale industries was that the handicrafts people adopt new technology for improving their production.
Source C- Market for Goods

Question : Why Manchester industrialists used images of gods and goddesses for putting labels on their clothes?
Answer : It was done so that the association with gods gave divine approval to the goods being sold.   

 


Questions :

1. Why did Britain imposed protective tariff?
2. Which policy was suggested by the economists to save industry and trade from government interfere.
3. Explain what is meant by proto-industrialization?
4. What was the aim behind establishing Chamber of Commerce? Where was it established in India first of all?
5. What is the importance of Advertisement in creating new consumers? How did Indian manufacturers send Nationalist message through these advertisements?

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The acquisition of 21st century competencies of communication, critical and creative thinking and the ability to locate, understand and reflect on various kinds of information has become more crucial for our learners. It is well accepted that Reading Literacy is not...

Online courses for classes XI and XII offered by NCERT

Ministry of Education (MoE), Government of India has launched a platform for offering Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) that is popularly known as SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active learning for Young Aspiring Minds) on 9 th July, 2017. NCERT now offers online courses for...

Surya Namaskar Project on 75th Anniversary of Independence Day

Ministry of Education, Govt of India vide letter No. F.No. 12-5/2020-IS-4 dated 16.12.2021 has intimated that under the banner Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav the National Yogasanasports Federation has decided to run a project of 750 million Surya Namaskar from 01 January 2022...

CBSE Science Challenge 2021 22

Science is inexplicably linked with our lives and helps us to understand the world around us better. Scientific and technological developments contribute to progress and help improve our standards of living. By engaging with this subject, students learn to think, solve...

Celebration of Matribhasha Diwas Mother Language day

UNESCO has declared 21st February of every year to be celebrated as International Mother Language day to promote dissemination of Mother Language of all, create awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions and diversity across the world and to inspire solidarity...

Pariksha Pe Charcha 2022

The 5th edition of Pariskhas Pe Charcha the unique interactive program of Hon’ble Prime Minister with students teaches and parents will be held through virtual mode in February, 2022. In order to select participants who will be featured in Pariksha Pe Charcha programme...