CBSE Class 10 Social Science HOTs Print culture and the Modern World

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Summary

The Print Revolution and its Impact.
1. Printing press, a new reading public emerged. Reduced the cost of books, now a reading public came into being.
2. Knowledge was transferred orally. Before the age of print books were not only expensive but they could not be produced in sufficient numbers.
3. But the transition was not so simple. Books could be read only by the literate and the rates of literary in most European crematories were very low, Oral culture thus entered print and rinted material was orally transmitted. And the hearing public and reading public became intermingled.
 
Religious Debates and the fear of Print.
1. Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas.
2. Through the printed message, they could persuade people to think differently and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. This had significance in different sphere of life.
3. Many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed world and the wider circulation of books, could have on people’s minds.
4. If that happened the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed, expressed by religious authorities and monarchs, as well as many writers and artists, achievement of religion areas of Martin Luther.
5. A new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the reformation.
 
Print culture and the French Revolution :
1. Print popularized the ideas of the enlightenment thinkers. Collectively, their writings provided a critical connmentary or tradition, superstition and despotism.
2. Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, forms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had become aware of the power of reason.
3. 1780’s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticised their morality. In the process, it raised questions about the existing social order.
4. The print helps the spread of ideas. People did not read just one kind of literature. If they read the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau, They were also exposed to monarchic and church propaganda.
5. Print did not directly shape their minds, but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently.
 
The Nineteenth Century (Women)
1. As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century. A large numbers of new readers were especially women.
2. Women became important as readers as well as writers. Penny magazines were especially meant for women, as were manuals treaching proper behaviour and house keeping.
3. In the nineteenth century, lending libraries in England, lower middle class people. Sometimes self educated working class people wrote for themselves. Women were seen as important eaders. Some of the best known novelists were women : Jane Austin, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot. their writings became important in defining a new type of woman.

 

MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science Print Culture and the Modern World

Question : What does the above image depict?
(a) Advertisements at a railway station in England
(b) Passengers boarding the train
(c) Craze in using public transport
(d) Invention of railways
Answer : A

Question : Vellum is :
(a) metal frame in which the types are laid and the text compressed
(b) a parchment made from the skin of animals
(c) the art of beautiful and stylised writing
(d) a historical account or folk tale in verse, usually sung or recited
Answer : B

Question : He developed the first-known Printing Press in the 1430s :
(a) Martin Luther
(b) Marco Polo
(c) Warren Hastings
(d) Johann Gutenberg
Answer : D

Question : Arrange the following in the correct sequence:
(i) Establishment of Gutenberg Printing Press
(ii) Buddhist missionaries brought hand printing to Japan
(iii) Print came to India
(iv) Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses
Options-
(a) (ii)-(i)-(iv)-(iiii)
(b) (i)-(ii)-(iii)-(iv)
(c) (i)-(iii)-(ii)-(iv)
(d) (iii)-(i)-(ii)-(iv)
Answer : A

Question : Who wrote Ninety-five Theses?
(a) Martin Luther
(b) Johann Gutenberg
(c) Charles Dickens
(d) Louise Sebastian Mercier
Answer : A

Question : The first printing press came to India with which one of the following?
(a) Portuguese Missionaries
(b) Catholic Priests
(c) Dutch protestants
(d) East India Company
Answer : A 

Question : Biliotheque Bleue were printed in which country? 
(a) Mexico
(b) Belgium
(c) France
(d) China
Answer : C
Explanation: Biliotheque Bleue were printed in France. These were low priced small books printed on poor quality paper and bound in cheap blue covers.
 
Question : Who were Bronte sisters? 
(a) They were novelists
(b) They were philosophers
(c) They were historians
(d) They were Journalists
Answer : A
Explanation: The best known novelists in the nineteenth century were Brounte sisters. Their writings became important in defining a new type of women.  
 
 

Very Short Questions for Class 10 Social Science Print Culture and the Modern World

Question : How had hand printing technology introduced in Japan?
Answer :  Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770.

Question : Where was the first printing press established in India?
Answer :  In Goa 

Question : Who introduced hand-printing technology in Japan?
Answer :  Buddhist missionaries from China.

Question : Which method of hand-printing was developed in China? 
Answer :  Woodblock printing

Question : Why were the earlier printed books profusely illustrated with pictures? 
Answer : To inculcate the habit of reading and attracted more readers.
 
Question : What is meant by “Print Revolution”? 
Answer : Shift from hand printing to mechanical printing.
 
Question : Why were some people scared about printed books?1
Answer : Fear of rebellious and irreligious thought spreading, valuable materials and text might be lost.
 
Question : Why did publishers bring out cheap paperback editions in the 1930’s?
Answer : The publishers fear the book sales would decline-great depression.
 
Question : Explain the factors responsible for the invention new printing technology.
Answer : Increasing demand for books, copying-laborious expensive and time consuming, manuscripts were fragile, need for quicker and cheaper reproduction of text.
 
Question : How did the use of print diversify in 17th century China?
Answer : Print was used by merchants for trade information, reading became leisure activity, women began reading and publishing their works.
 
Question : Mention the strategies adopted by the printers and publishers to sell their books.
Answer : Serialisation of popular novels, brought out shilling series, dust cover book jacket, paperback editions were innovations.
 
Question : Examine the reasons for a virtual reading “Mania” in Europe in the 18th century.
Answer : Rise of literacy rate to 60-80%, desire to read more books, spreading progress enlightenment, change the world, liberate society and bring in reason and intellect.
 
Question : What was the impact of printed books on women in India in the 19th century?4
Answer : Books on women written, women readers increased, literal husbands and fathers taught daughters at home, women education emphasized.
 
Question : Give four instances of print around us everywhere. 
Answer : Books, newspapers, official circulars, advertisements.
 
Question : Who developed the first printing press?
Answer : Johann Gutenberg developed the first-known printing press in the 1430s.

Question : Wooden or Metal frames in which types are laid and the text composed for printing was known as:
Answer : Galley 

Question : Who wrote "Chhote aur Bade ka Sawal"? When was it published?
Answer : Kashbaba, a Kanpur millworker in 1938.

Question : Name the first book printed by Gutenberg Press.
Answer : The Bible

Question : Who was Menocchio?
Answer : Menocchio was a miller of 16th century in Italy. He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and creation that enraged the Catholic Church.

Question : Name any four languages in which Indian manuscript was prepared before the age of print. 
Answer : Before the age of print, the Indian manuscript was prepared in four languages viz. Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and Bengali.
 
Question : Name some Indian writers who wrote for and about the poor of our society. 
Answer : Some Indian writers who wrote for and about the poor of our society were Jyotiba Phule, BR Ambedkar, EV Ramaswamy Naicker, Mahatma Gandhi and Prem Chand.  
 
Question : Name the oldest Japanese book.
Answer :  It is the art of beautiful and stylish writing.

 

Read the sources given below and answer the question that follows-
Sources A- The First Printing Book The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From AD 594 onwards, book in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there – against the inked surface of woodblocks. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy.
Source B- A New Reading Public With the printing press, a new reading public emerged. Printing reduced the cost of books. The time and labour required to produce each book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease. Books flooded the market, Reaching out to an ever growing readership. Access to book created a new culture of reading. Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites. Common people lived in a world of oral culture. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated. Knowledge was transferred orally. People collectively heard a story, or saw a performance. They did not read a book individually and silently. Before the age of print, books were not only expensive but they could not be produced in sufficient numbers. Now books could reach out to wider selection of people. If earlier there was a hearing public, now a reading public came into being.
Source C- Manuscript, Before The Age of Print Manuscript, however, were highly expensive and fragile. They had to be handled carefully, and they could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles. So manuscript were not widely used in everyday life. Even though pre-colonial Bengal had developed an extensive network of village primary schools, students very often did not be read texts. They only learnt to write. Teachers dictated portions of texts from memory and students wrote them down. Many thus became literate without ever actually reading any kinds of texts. Sources A- The First Printing Book.

Question : What was the change brought about by innovation of printing ?
Answer : With the innovation of printing, cost of books were reduced. Now books could reach out to wider selection of people. Hence flooded the market. Source C- Manuscript, Before The Age of Print

Question : Which three countries developed earliest print technology?
Answer : China, Japan and Korea. Source B- A New Reading Public.

Question : Write any one character of manuscripts because of which printed books replaced them.
Answer : Manuscripts were highly expensive and could not be read easily and these were not afforded by everyone and subsequently replaced by printed books. 

 

Short Questions for Class 10 Social Science Print Culture and the Modern World

Question : How did print culture affect the life of poor people and women in the nineteenth century India? Explain. 
Answer : (i) The print culture gave birth to new forms of popular literature. Very small books were brought out. They were sold cross roads. The poor people brought these books and read with great interest. Books were cheap, even the poor could afford to buy them. Public libraries were set up.
(ii) The print culture made the women important, as readers as well as writers. Women's reading increased enormously in middle class homes. Liberal husbands and fathers began educating their women folk at home and send them to schools. Women schools were set up. 

Question : How were the students taught in pre-colonial Bengal? 
Answer : Even though pre-colonial Bengal had developed an extensive network of village primary schools, students very often did not read texts. They only learnt to write. Teachers dictated portions of texts from memory and students wrote them down. Many thus became literate without ever actually reading any kinds of texts.

Question : Explain the reasons favouring shift from hand printing to mechanical printing in China.
Answer : (i) The woodblock printing was much faster than hand printing.
(ii) They had to make copies of book with a great accuracy and in beauty of calligraphy.
(iii) And the books were printed on rubber paper.

Question : Where was the earliest kind of print technology developed? Explain that technology.
Answer : (i) The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China. This was a system of hand printing.
(ii) From 594 A.D. onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface.
(iii) As both sides of the thin and porous sheet could not be printed the traditional Chinese ‘Accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side.

Question : “Print Revolution in sixteenth century Europe transformed the lives of people.” Support the statement with suitable arguments.
Answer : The print revolution transformed the lives of a large section of the society in the 16th century Europe.
(a) A new reading public emerged as printing reduced the cost of books making it very affordable.
(b) Access to books created a new culture of reading. Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites. Common people lived in a world of oral culture. Common folk only heard sacred texts that was read out. Knowledge was transferred orally. People collectively heard a story, or saw a performance.
(c) Now books could reach out to wider sections of people and a reading public came into being. The line that separated the oral and reading cultures became blurred. And the hearing public and reading public became intermingled. 

Question : “The print Revolution had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge” Analyse the statement.
Answer : (i) The rate of literacy was very low in Europe till the end of the 20th century. In order to attract people towards books, the printers started printing popular ballads and folk tales with lot of illustration.
(ii) Such books were recited at gatherings and it attracted listeners. (iii) Thus the oral culture was printed and printed material was orally transmitted. That’s how oral and reading culture intermingled.

Question : What was an ‘Accordion Book’? Describe any two features of hand printing in China.
Answer : ‘Accordion Book’ is a traditional Chinese book, folded and stitched at the side. (i) Chinese Accordion Books were handprinted. They were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of wooden blocks.
(ii) As both sides of the thin, porous sheet would not be printed, the traditional Chinese 'Accordion Book' was folded and stitched at the side.
(iii) These Accordion Books could be duplicated by superbly skilled craftsmen with remarkable accuracy and the beauty of calligraphy. 

Question : Explain giving three points how did the print culture develop in India.
Answer : Kurasani paper was introduced to India in the eighth century by Arabs. Indian manuscripts were written in mainly four colors - gold and silver, black and red. Printing came to India in 1556. The first book printed in India was in Portuguese language in Old Goa. It was Doctrina Christa by St. Francis Xavier. With development of printing technology more books started to be printed. Experimentation with the themes of the books started. This led to the publication of different books in vernacular languages. Novels, story books and books for children helped to earn readership.  

Question : How were the manuscripts written in India before the age of print? What were their drawbacks and effect?
Answer : (i) In India manuscripts were written on palm leaves or on handmade paper before the age of print.
(ii) Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated.
(iii) They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.
(iv) Manuscripts continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the late nineteenth century.
(v) Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile. They had to be handled carefully and they could not be read easily as script was written in different styles.

Question : How did a new reading public emerge with the printing press? Explain.
Answer : (i) Wider sections of people started having an easy access to books.
(ii) Books were printed in large numbers with greater ease.
(iii) The prices fell and they became affordable for large public.
(iv) The hearing public and reading public became intermingled. 

Question : Martin Luther remarked Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one. Explain this remark in the light of the religious reforms that took place in Europe in the 16th century.
Answer : (i) Martin Luther wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticising the malpractices in the Roman Catholic Church. He posted a printed copy of it on the door of a church in Wittenberg.
(ii) Luther's writing immediately became popular through printed copies and was read widely.
(iii) 5000 printed copies of Luther's translation of the New Testament were sold in a week.
(iv) All these led to a religious debate and marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
(v) Printing technology played a key role in bringing religious reforms in the 16th century. Hence Martin Luther’s remarks were apt, effective and practical. 

Question : Print culture created the condition within which French Revolution occurred. Give any three suitable arguments to support the statement.
Answer : (i) Print popularized the ideas of enlightened thinkers on traditions, superstitions and despotism.
(ii) They advocated reasons.
(iii) People read books of Voltaire and Rousseau. Print created dialogue and debate.
(iv) People started discussion and evaluated the royalty.
(v) Print literature mocked the royalty.
(vi) These kind of print literature circulated underground and it created awareness among people and formed the basis of French Revolution. 

Question :  How did print introduce as new world of debate and discussion? What were its implication in sphere of religion? Explain. 
Answer : (i) Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas leading to debate and discussion. Those who disagreed with established authorities could now print and circulate their own views.
(ii) Through printed messages, they could persuade people to think differently.
(iii) Implication on the sphere of religion — The religious reformer. Martin Luther, wrote ‘The Ninety five Theses’ criticizing many practices of Roman Catholic Church. This led to a division within the church and marketed the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.  

Question : Explain the new visual culture in print which developed in the nineteenth century.
Answer : (i) With the setting up of an increasing number of printing presses, visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies.
(ii) Painters like Raja Ravi Verma produced images for mass circulation.
(iii) Cheap prints and calenders were easily available in the bazar. By the 1870s, caricatures and cartoons were also being published in Journals and newspapers commenting on social and political   

Question : What do you know about manuscripts of India?
Answer : i. India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian as well as in various vernacular languages.
ii. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade papers.
iii. Pages were beautifully illustrated. They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.
iv. Manuscripts continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the late nineteenth century.
 
Question : Can we imagine a world without printed matter? 
Answer : i. It is difficult for us to imagine a world without printed matter.
ii. We find evidences of print everywhere around us-in books, journals, newspapers, prints of famous paintings, and also in everyday things like theatre programmes, official circulars, calendars, diaries, advertisements, cinema posters at street corners.
iii. We read printed literature, see printed images, follow the news through newspapers, and track public debates that appear in print.

Question : Why were women not educated in India in the early part of the nineteenth century? Give any two reasons.
Answer :  (i) This was because of the superstitions and myths that prevailed in the society.
(ii) Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed and Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.  

Question : What led the colonial government to pass the Vernacular Press Act in 1879? How did it affect the vernacular newspaper? 
Answer : (i) Nationalists in India used print media to publish the evil affects of British rule and spread new ideas.
(ii) As Vernacular newspapers became assertively nationalist, the colonial government decided to take strong measures.
(iii) In 1878 the Vernacular Press Act was passed which provided the government with intensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the Vernacular press.
(iv) Despite repressive measures nationalist news papers grew in numbers in all parts of India. 

Question : What is manuscript? Mention any two limitations of it, during nineteenth century.
Answer :  (i) Manuscripts were copies on palm leaves or on handmade paper.
(ii) Pages were beautifully illustrated.
(ii) Manuscripts were highly expensive but fragile.
(iii) They were in various vernacular languages.
(iv) They could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles. 

Question : 'With the printing press a new public emerged in Europe'. Justify the statement. 
Answer :  (i) Wider sections of people started having an easy access to books.
(ii) Books were printed in large numbers with greater ease.
(iii) The prices fell and they became affordable for large public.
(iv) The hearing public and reading public became intermingled. 

Question : For what purpose did Ram Chaddha, publish ‘Istri Dharm Vichar’?
Answer :  (i) In Punjab, a similar folk literature about discussing women issues was widely printed from the early 20th century.
(ii) Ram Chaddha published the fast selling ‘Istri Dharma Vichar’ to teach women how to be obedient wives. 

Question : What are the factors that lead to the reading mania in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe?
Answer : As literacy spread to peasants and artisans, the literacy rate rose as high as 60 to 80 per cent in some parts of Europe.
(i) People wanted to read books and the printers produced books in ever increasing numbers.
(ii) By mid-eighteenth century, there was a common belief that books were a means of spreading progress and enlightenment.
(iii) Others felt that books could change the world, liberate society from despotism and tyranny and would bring an era when reason and intellect would rule.
(iv) Convinced by the power of print, there was virtual reading mania among Europeans of 18th century.  

Question : Why did the Roman Catholic Church begin to keep an index of prohibited books from the mid 16th century?
Answer : (i) Printed religious literature stimulated a variety of interpretations of faith, even among the little educated working class in the early 16th century.
(ii) Menocchio, an Italian miller, reinterpreted the Bible in a way that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.
(iii) Such instances worried the Church about people reading the various interpretations of the religion and questioning the Church.
(iv) Hence, it imposed severe controls over publishers and booksellers and began maintaining an index of prohibited books. 

Question : How had the earliest printing technology developed in the world? Explain with example.
Answer :  (i) The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. In China woodblocks were used for hand printing.
(ii) Upto the 6th century print was used only by the scholar officials but later it became common.
(iii) The Buddhist missionaries introduced hand printing technology from China to Japan.
(iv) It was Marco Polo, a great explorer, who brought printing knowledge of woodblock from China to Italy.

Question : How did new forms of popular literature appear in print targeting new audience in the 18th century? Explain with examples. 
Answer :  (i) There were almanacs along with ballads and folktales. In England, chapbooks were carried by petty pedlars known as chapman and sold for a penny.
(ii) Biliotheque Bleue were low-priced books sold in France.
(iii) There were the romances printed on four to six pages and the more substantial 'Histories' which were stories of the past. 

Question : "It is difficult to imagine a world without printed matter". Justify the statement with suitable arguments.
Answer :   Yes, it is really very difficult to imagine a world without printed matter because:
(i) Everywhere in our surroundings, we find evidence of print, i.e. in books, journals, newspapers, prints of famous paintings, etc.
(ii) We see printed materials in everyday things like theatre programs, official circulars, calendars, diaries, advertisements, cinema posters, government notifications, etc.
(iii) We read printed literature, see printed images, follow the news through different newspapers and track public debates that appear in print. We take this world as world of print and often forget that there was a time before the printing technology came. 

Question : Why were manuscripts not widely used in everyday life? Give three reasons.
Answer :  1. Manuscripts were documents or books written by hand. 2. They were not used widely because :
(i) They could not satisfy the ever increasing demand for books.
(ii) They were expensive as copying was an expensive, laborious and time consuming work.
(iii) Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle and could not be carried around or read easily.
(iv) Their circulation was limited. 

Question : Explain the different stages of development of printing technology in China. 
Answer :  (i) From 594 A.D. the books were printed in China by pressing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
(ii) The imperial court got many textbooks printed for the Civil Services Examination and remained the target user of printed books in China.
(iii) By the 17th century urban culture developed in China and it added merchants, wives of rich men, scholars and officials who not only started reading printed books but also began to write their autobiographies.
(iv) In the late 19th century, the western powers established mechanical printing press in Shanghai and shifted to mechanical printing. 

Question : Explain how print culture assisted the growth of Nationalism in India.
Answer :  Print culture, i.e., press and literature played a crucial role in growth and spread of nationalism in India.
(i) In the 19th century, huge quantity of national literature was created. It inspired people to throw away the British yoke.
(ii) India Mirror, Bombay Samachar, The Hindu, Kesari-Indian newspapers exerted deep imprint on the minds of people.
(iii) Nationalist press reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. For example, when Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with great sympathy about them.
(iv) Gandhi ji spread his ideas of Swadeshi in a powerful way through newspapers. Many Vernacular newspapers came up in India to spread nationalism. 

Question : Describe any five strategies developed by the printers and publishers in the 19th century to sell their products.
Answer :  Some of the important strategies adopted by the printers and publishers to sell books were :
(i) They brought out serialized novels. The first serialized novel was shilling series. It was a cheap series that was very popular and was sold in England in 1920's.
(ii) The advertisers put up advertisements at strategic public locations such as building, railway station, etc. to attract buyers and improve sales.
(iii) The dust cover or the book jacket is the 20th century innovation.
(iv) One of the great innovation was the introduction of cheap paper back books in the 1930's. During the Great Depression this kept the steady sale of books. Cheap paper back editions were brought to counter the effect of the Great Depression in the 1930's.
(v) The shilling series was also considered an important innovation at this time.

 

 

Long Questions for Class 10 Social Science Print Culture and the Modern World

Question : How did print culture develop in Europe? Explain.
Answer :  The print culture developed in Europe in small steps. In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route. Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes. In 1295, Marco Polo, the great explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. Marco Polo brought Chinese technology of woodblock printing back with him. Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe. With the growing demand for books, woodblock printing gradually became more and more popular. By the early fifteenth century, woodblocks were being widely used in Europe to print textiles, playing cards, and religious pictures with simple, brief texts. There was clearly a great need for even quicker and cheaper reproduction of texts. The breakthrough occurred at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenberg developed the first-known printing press in the 1430s. 

Question : How did print help in empowering womenfolk?
Answer : Printing helped in empowering womenfolk greatly. Lives and feelings of women were written with intensity in the books. This increased the number of women who took to reading. Liberal husbands and fathers started educating their womenfolk at home and some sent them to schools. Many journals began carrying writings by women and explained why women should be educated. They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for homebased schooling. Social reforms and novels created a great interest in women’s lives and emotions. Women’s opinions and views began to be considered and respected. Stories were written about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labor and treated unjustly by the very people they served. Stories about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows also appeared in print. These stories paved the way for the liberation of the suppressed Indian woman.

Question : Give any three reasons favouring shift from hand printing to mechanical printing in China.
Answer :  The principal reason for shifting from hand printing to mechanical printing in China were an increased demand and availability of the technology.
(a) From the earliest days China had a large bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. Sixteenth century onwards the number of examination candidates went up and that increased the volume of print.
(b) By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified. Merchants began to use print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
(c) Reading increasingly became a leisure activity for a large number of people including women. The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays. Many women began publishing their poetry and plays. (d) Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were imported in the late nineteenth century as Western powers established their outposts in China. Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture, catering to the Westernstyle schools. This led to a gradual shift from hand printing to mechanical printing.

Question : What were the chief characteristics of the earliest print culture in Japan? Explain any five. 
Answer : (i) Introduced by the Buddhist missionaries : The Buddhist missionaries from China introduced the hand printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770.
(ii) Old book : The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
(iii) Material: Playing cards, paper money and textile products were used for printing pictures.
(iv) Cheap books : In the medieval Japan, the works of poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
(v) Print in Edo (Tokyo) : In the late 18th century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings depicting an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans and teahouse gatherings.

Question : What difference did printing technology make in the lives of women and children in the 19th century? Explain. 
Answer : Impact on Women : (i) Women became important readers and writers. Penny magazines, especially meant for women, contained guidelines on proper behaviour and housekeeping.
(ii) Novel began to be written in the 19th century and some of the best novelist were women like Jane Austen, Bronte sisters, George Eliot, etc.
(iii) Their writing created a new image of women with will, strength of personality, determination and power to think. Impact on Children :
(i) Primary education became compulsory from the late 19th century.
(ii) School textbooks, rural folk tales in edited versions, fairy tales and new stories were published for children.
(iii) Grimm brothers of Germany spent years to collect traditional folk tales from peasants and in France a children's press was set up in 1857.

Question : Describe the impact of print culture on Indian women. 
Answer : (i) Women education : Writers started writing about the lives and feelings of women, and this increased the number of women readers. Women got interested in education, and many women schools and colleges were set up. Many journals started emphasising the importance of women education. (ii) Women writers : In East Bengal, in the early nineteenth century, Rashsundari Debi, a young married girl wrote her autobiography, Amar Jiban (means ‘my life’) which was published in 1876. From the 1860s, many Bengali women writers like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women, about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour, and treated unjustly by the menfolk, they served. In the 1880s, in the present-day Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of the upper-caste Hindu women, especially the widows. The poor status of women was also expressed by the Tamil writers.
(iii) Hindi writing and women : While Urdu, Tamil, Bengali and Marathi print culture had developed earlier, Hindi printing began seriously only from the 1870s. Soon, a large section of it was devoted to the education of women.
(iv) New journals : In the early 20th century, the journals written by women, became very popular in which women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage, etc. were discussed. Some of them offered fashion lessons for women.
(v) Teachings for women : Ram Chaddha published Istri Dharam Vichar to teach women how to be obedient wives. The Khalsa Tract Society published cheap booklets with a similar message. Many of these were in the form of dialogues about the qualities of a good woman.
 
Question : How did the ideas of scientists and philosophers become more accessible to common people after the beginning of print revolution in Europe? 
Answer : The ideas of scientists and philosophers became easily accessible to common people after the print revolution in Europe as:
i. Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published. Maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed.
ii. When scientists like Isaac Newton began to publish their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of scientific-minded readers by his scientific logic.
iii. The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read.
iv. Those who read these books saw the world through new eyes.
v. There was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality.

Question : Explain five effects of print revolution. 
Answer :  Impact of Print Revolution :
(i) New reading public emerged.
(ii) The hearing people became reading people.
(iii) Religious debates due to fear of prints led to distinctive interpretation of faith.
(iv) Printing transformed the lives of the people.
(v) It opened new ways of looking at things.
(vi) Print culture also affected the life of poor people and women in many ways. The print gave birth to new form of popular literature. Very small books were brought out. They were sold across roads. The poor people brought these books and read with great interest. Books were cheap so the the poor people could also afford them.
(vii) Women's reading increased enormously in middle class homes. Liberal husbands and fathers began educating their women folk at home and send them to schools. Women schools were also set up. 

Question : Explain briefly the initial efforts made by foreigners to introduce printing press in India.
Answer :  (i) The Portuguese missionaries first introduced printing press in India in the mid 16th century.
(ii) Jesuit priests learnt Konkani and printed several texts.
(iii) By 1674 about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and Kannada language.
(iv) Catholic priest first published printed books in Tamil in Cochin and in 1713 first Malayalam book was printed.
(v) Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed nearly 32 text in Tamil which were later translated.
(vi) The English language press did not grow in India till quite late even though official of the East India Company began to import presses from late 17th century.
(vii) From 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine; it was a private English enterprise and was free from colonial influence.
(viii) Hickey published a lot of advertisements including those that related to import and sale of slaves.
(ix) By the close of the 18th century, a number of newspaper and journals appeared in print. 

Question : Describe the impact of the print revolution in Europe during 15th and 16th century.
Answer :  Impact of the print revolution in Europe during the 15th and 16th century:
(i) Printing reduced the cost of books.
(ii) The time and labour required to produce each book came down, multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
(iii) Books flooded the market, reaching out to an ever growing readership.
(iv) Publishers started publishing popular ballads folk tales with beautiful pictures and illustrations.
(v) Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion.
(vi) Even those who disagreed with established authorities, could now print and circulate their ideas, e.g. Martin Luther was a German monk, priest, professor and church reformer. He challenged the Church to debate his ideas. This led to division within the Church and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
(vii) Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretations of faith even among little-educated working people. 

Question : Explain with example how print culture catered to the requirement of children.
Answer :  (i) In Europe primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers. Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry. 
(ii) A children's press devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France in 1857.
(iii) This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folktales.
(iv) The Grimm brothers in Germany spent years in compiling traditional folk tales gathered from peasants. What they collected was edited before the stories were published in a collection in 1812.
(v) Anything that was considered unsuitable for children or would appear vulgar to the elites, was not included in the published version. Rural folk tales thus acquired a new form. In this way, print recorded old tales but also changed them. 

Question : Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century, support with examples.
Answer :  Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society:
(a) It made people aware about various social issues and problems. For example it created intense debate and controversy between social and religious reformers and the orthodox Hindus. The ideas of reformers reached the wider population of the common people through printed reading material. For example the “Sambad Kaumudi” carried the ideas of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. The Deoband Seminary founded in 1867, published thousands of fatwas telling the Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives. The print culture had a significant impact on the growth of nationalism in India.
(i) Inspite of passing a Vernacular Press Act, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers.
(ii) They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist actvities.
(iii) The British Government tried to put down the criticism but there were more protests.
(iv) Punjab revolutionaries were deported,’ Tilak wrote in Kesari.
(v) It led to his imprisonment in 1908 provoking large protest. 

Question : Describe any five uses of print culture in the 17th century China.
Answer :  (i) By the 17th century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified.
(ii) Print was no longer used just by scholarofficials. (iii) Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
(iv) The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces and romantic plays.
(v) Rich women began to read and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
(vi) Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtsmen wrote about their lives. 

Question : ‘Print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred’. Give three suitable arguments to support this statement. 
Answer :  Many historians believe that print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred. The arguments put forward are as follows :
(a) Print popularized the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers. Their writings provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and despotism. They argued for the rule of reason rather than custom, and demanded that everything be judged through the application of reason and rationality. They attacked the sacred authority of the Church and the despotic power of the state, thus eroding the legitimacy of a social order based on tradition. The writings of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely; and those who read these books saw the world through new eyes, eyes that were questioning, critical and rational.
(b) Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by the public that had become aware of the power of reason, and recognized the need to question existing ideas and beliefs. Within this public culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.
(c) Large amount of literature was produced that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality. In the process, it raised questions about the existing social order. This literature circulated underground and led to the growth of hostile sentiments against the monarchy. 

 

Discuss :
1. What was print revolution?
2. In eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism discuss?
3. Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from Europe?
4. Give reason. Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it?
5. Give reasons, the Roman Catholic Church began keeping an index of prohibited books from the midsixteenth century.
6. In nineteenth century in Europe. There was a great increase in women literature? Explain it.

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