NCERT Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health

Read and download NCERT Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health chapter in NCERT book for Class 12 Biology. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Biology textbook for Class 12 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Biology to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology NCERT

Class 12 Biology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Reproductive Health in standard 12. This NCERT Book for Grade 12 Biology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Reproductive Health NCERT Class 12

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

You have learnt about human reproductive system and its functions in Chapter 3. Now, let’s discuss a closely related topic – reproductive health. What do we understand by this term? The term simply refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. However, it has a broader perspective and includes the emotional and social aspects of reproduction also. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), reproductive health means a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social. Therefore, a society with people having physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioural interactions among them in all sex-related aspects might be called reproductively healthy. Why is it significant to maintain reproductive health and what are the methods taken up to achieve it? Let us examine them.

4.1 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – PROBLEMS AND STRATEGIES

India was amongst the first countries in the world to initiate action plans and programmes at a national level to attain total reproductive health as a social goal. These programmes called ‘family planning’ were initiated in 1951 and were periodically assessed over the past decades. Improved programmes covering widerreproduction-related areas are currently in operation under the popular name ‘Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) programmes’. Creating awareness among people about various reproduction related aspects and providing facilities and support for building up a reproductively healthy society are the major tasks under these programmes.

With the help of audio-visual and the print-media governmental and non-governmental agencies have taken various steps to create awareness among the people about reproduction-related aspects. Parents, other close relatives, teachers and friends, also have a major role in the dissemination of the above information. Introduction of sex education in schools should also be encouraged to provide right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects. Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS, etc., would help people, especially those in the adolescent age group to lead a reproductively healthy life.

Educating people, especially fertile couples and those in marriageable age group, about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breast feeding, equal opportunities for the male and the female child, etc., would address the importance of bringing up socially conscious healthy families of desired size. Awareness of problems due to uncontrolled population growth, social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes, etc., need to be created to enable people to think and take up necessary steps to prevent them and thereby build up a socially responsible and healthy society.

Successful implementation of various action plans to attain reproductive health requires strong infrastructural facilities, professional expertise and material support. These are essential to provide medical assistance and care to people in reproduction-related problems like pregnancy, delivery, STDs, abortions, contraception, menstrual problems, infertility, etc. Implementation of better techniques and new strategies from time to time are also required to provide more efficient care andassistance to people. Statutory ban on amniocentesis (a foetal sexdetermination test based on the chromosomal pattern in the amnioticfluid surrounding the developing embryo) for sex-determination to legally check increasing female foeticides, massive child immunisation, etc., are some programmes that merit mention in this connection. 


EXERCISES

1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?

2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.

3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?

4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.

5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?

6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.

7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?

8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.

9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.

10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?

11. State True/False with explanation

 (a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)

 (b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)

 (c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of  contraception. (True/False)

 (d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)

12. Correct the following statements :

 (a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.

 (b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.

 (c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.

 (d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus


Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health

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Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
NCERT Class 12 Biology Reproduction in Organisms
Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants
NCERT Class 12 Biology Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Chapter 3 Human Reproduction
NCERT Class 12 Biology Human Reproduction
Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
NCERT Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health
Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
NCERT Class 12 Biology Principles of Inheritance
Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
NCERT Class 12 Biology Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Chapter 7 Evolution
NCERT Class 12 Biology Evolution
Chapter 8 Human Health and Diseases
NCERT Class 12 Biology Human Health and Disease
Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement In Food Production
NCERT Class 12 Biology Strategies For Enhancement in Food Reproduction
Chapter 10 Microbes In Human Welfare
NCERT Class 12 Biology Microbes In Human Welfare
Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes
NCERT Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Chapter 12 Biotechnology and Its Application
NCERT Class 12 Biology Biotechnology and Its Applications
Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
NCERT Class 12 Biology Organisms and Populations
Chapter 14 Ecosystem
NCERT Class 12 Biology Ecosystem
Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
NCERT Class 12 Biology Biodiversity and Conservation
Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
NCERT Class 12 Biology Environmental Issues

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