CBSE Class 6 Science Separation of Substances Exam Notes

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Study Material for Class 6 Science Chapter 5 Separation of Substances

Class 6 Science students should refer to the following Pdf for Chapter 5 Separation of Substances in standard 6. These notes and test paper with questions and answers for Grade 6 Science will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Class 6 Science Chapter 5 Separation of Substances

CBSE Class 6 Science Separation of Substances Exam Notes. There are many more useful educational material which the students can download in pdf format and use them for studies. Study material like concept maps, important and sure shot question banks, quick to learn flash cards, flow charts, mind maps, teacher notes, important formulas, past examinations question bank, important concepts taught by teachers. Students can download these useful educational material free and use them to get better marks in examinations.  Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.

Separation of Substances

There are large number of materials such as water, sugar, salt, milk, tea, fruits, vegetables, air, etc. Around us, we use these materials daily. In some of these substances we take only the useful components by separating them from unuseful components. For example, we filter the tea before drinking it to separate tea leaves from the tea. Similarly, we peel the skins of many fruits and vegetables before eating them. We also take out butter from milk by churning the milk.

A pure substance is one which is made up of only one kind of a substance or substances. It has a definite, well-defined set of properties. It has the same composition throughout. All elements and compounds are examples of pure substances.

A mixture is made up of two or more substances. These substances are called the constituents or components of the mixture. The components may be mixed in any proportion. The individual constituents of a mixture retain their own properties. These components can be separated by a simple physical process.
All mixture are heterogeneous except solutions, which are homogeneous. The mixture of water and sugar is homogeneous.

The process by which unwwanted or harmful components of a mixture are removed to get a pure substance is called separation. We usually separate the components of a mixture to
1. Remove undesirable or unwanted components
2. Get a pure sample of a substance
3. Extract useful components from the mixture
4. Remove harmful components

Each constituent of a mixture has some property unique to itself and is shared by no other components. This difference in property is utilised to separate the various components from the mixture.

Various methods are used for separating the components of a mixture. The choice of the method to be used depends upon the nature and composition of the mixture. Sometimes we might use a combination of various methods. Now, let us study some methods commonly used by us for separating the components of a mixture.

Different methods are used by us at home for cleaning food. Hand picking and sieving are commonly practised by your mother to clean food. Now, let us learn about these mehtods.

This is the simplest method of separating unwanted substances from the useful ones. Here we take advantage of difference in size, shape, or colour of different substances. Pulses, wheat, and rice are quite often mixed with small stones and insects. Housewives often clean pulses and spices by this method. They remove small pebbles, dust, dirt and other unwanted materials. This method can be used only where one of the components is present in small quantity.



Threshing is the process of beating out the grain from the chaff. The harvested crop is threshed to separate the grain from its outer covering called chaff. The threshing of paddy is traditionally carried out by beating the harvested crop with sticks. On the other hand, the threshing of wheat and other crops is carried out by treading the crop with animals such as bullocks and buffaloes. These methods are limited to very small farmers. However, in case of big fields, threshing is done by using threshers. The mothod of using threshers is not only economical but also quicker and more efficient than treading with animals.

this method is generally used by farmers to separate grain from husk after threshing. The farmer allows the mixture of grain and the husk to fall from a height. The grains which are heavier fall vertically down on the ground. The husk which is lighter, is carried away by the wind and forms
a separate heap at a short distance from the heap of grains as shown. This process is called winnowing.


Sedimentation and Decantation

This method is used for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. It is not a good method as the complete separation of solid from liquid is not possible. Why do doctors often instruct us to shake the bottle containing liquid medicine before use ? It is because some solid particle in these liquid medicine settle down at the bottom of the bottle. To learn more about these two methods let us perform.

Another simple method for removing suspended impurities from the liquid is filtration. It is the process of removing an isoluble substance from a liquid by a looowing it to pass through a filter paper or muslin cloth. The filter paper is similar to blotting paper. It contains many small holes. These holes are large enough to allow water to pass through but do not allow particles of insoluble substances like chalk powder, caly, sulphur, etc. Filtration is often used in our homes, laboratories and industries. Preparing tea or coffee involves filtration. While making cottage cheese (paneer) at home, solid paneer is separated from the liquid by filtration through a muslin cloth. Our water supply is filtered through a bed of gravel, sand, and charcoal. The sewage water is also filtered by using large metallic meshes to avoid choking of sewers.

The process in which a liquid changes into its vapour state is called evaporation. This method is used to separate solids dissolved in a liquid. This process is used on a large scale to obtain common salt from sea water. Sea water which contains dissolved salts is allowed to flow into shallow pools. The heat from the Sun eveporates the water and the solid salt is left behind.

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solute) dissolved in another substance (the solvent). The major component is called solvent and the minor component is called solute. If both the components in a solution are mixed in equal amount, the term ‘solute’ can be assigned to either component. A common example would be a solid dissolving into liquid, like salt or sugar dissolving in water. When two liquids dissolve in each other, the major component is the solvent and the minor component is the solute.

Many chemical reactions are carried out in solutions and solutions are also closely related to our everyday life. The air we breathe, the liquids we drink and fluids in our body are all solutions. We are also surrounded by solutions such as the air and water.

Types of Solutions

Saturated Solutions
A solution is said to be saturated when a solvent can dissolve no more of a solute at a particular temperature.

Unsaturated Solutions
A solution is said to be unsaturated when it is capable of dissolving more of solute than it already contains at the same temperature.

Super Saturated Solution
A solution is said to be super saturated when it contains more of the solute than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal conditions. Carbonated water and beer are examples of super saturated solutions.


I. Answer the following in one word or very briefly.
(1) What type of mixtures can be separated by hand picking ?
(2) What is a saturated solution ?
(3) When is sieving method preferred ?
(4) How is threshing done ?
(5) What is the improtance of a thresher to a farmer ?
(6) What properties would you look for to prove whether a particular substance is pure or impure?
(7) What is the function of candle in home water filters ?

II. Answer the following in brief.
(1) What is threshing and why is it done ?
(2) What is sieving and where do we use it ?
(3) What is the importance of three-stage water purifier to human beings ?
(4) What principle do we use in the separation of mixtures ?
(5) How is winnowing done ?

III. Answer the folloing in appropriate detail.
(1) How would you obtain clear water from a sample of muddy water ?
(2) How will you separate a mixture of common salt, sand and iron fillings ?
(3) What are pure substances ? Why is it difficult to keep substances in pure form in nature ?

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