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Human Body and its Movement
The movement of an organisations body from one place to another is called locomotion. Locomotion involves the whole body but only a particular body part is used for locomotion.
Locomotion helps animals
a) To move from an unfavourable environment to a favourable environment.
b) To find their food, and water.
c) To protect themselves from their enemies.
d) To find their partners (mates) for reproduction.
e) To find suitable place for laying eggs or rearing their young ones.
A change in the position of any part of the body with respect to its axis is called movement. Stationary animals such as sponges, corals and sea anemone show this kind of movement. For example, when you agree or disagree with someone, you shake your head. This shaking of head is called movement of head. For any body movement, energy and coordination between different organ systems are required. All animals meet their energy requirements through nutrition and respiration.
Important movements in our body are
a) Movement of heart muscles
b) Movement of teeth and jaw during eating
c) Movement of eye lids
d) Circulation of blood in the body
Human body and its movements Our body has a lot of flexibility. It can move its parts in different direction easily.
i) You can bend your leg at the knee. You cannot bend it beyond 180°.
ii) You can rotate your arm around your shoulder. You can move your arm sideway, upwards and downwards.
iii) You can bend your arm at the elbow. You can not bent it backwards.
iv) You can turn your neck around, up and down and side to side.
The place where two or more bones meet are termed joints in other words a joint is the region of the
movement between two bones that work on one another.
In vertebrates there are three kinds of joints:
i) Perfect joints
ii) Imperfect joints
iii) Immovable or fixed joints
i) Perfect joints: Perfect joints are those which make free movement possible in various direction. Perfect joints are of four types:
a) Ball and socket joints
b) Hinge joints
c) Pivot joints
d) Gliding joints
a) Ball and Socket Joints: These joints allow movement in most directions e.g. shoulder and hip joints.
Shoulder Joints: Shoulder joint of man is made up of the rounded upper end of the humerus which fits into the shallow glenoid cavity.
Hip Joints: The hip joints is similar to the should joints. The acetabulum of the pelvic girdle is much deeper than the glenoid fossa and ball on the upper end of the femur is larger than the head of humerus.
b) Hinge Joints: These permit only to and fro movement in one plane. Joint between upper and lower arm (elbow joint). Thigh and lower leg (knee joint) and fore arm and wrist joint. Between the phalages of all the digits.
c) Pivot Joints: Such joints allow rotation only. It is this type of joint which enables you to turn your head from side to side.
d) Gliding Joints: In these joints the bones slide over each other and the movements allowed are in all planes but very limited e.g. The joints between distal end of radius and ulna.
ii) Imperfect Joints: In this type bones are separated by a layer of cartilage and a very limited amount of movement of one bone upon the other is made possible by the flexibility of the intervening cartilage.
iii) Immovable or Fixed Joints: These joints allow no movement such joints are present between the skull bones of an adult man.
The Skeletal System
The framework of bones and cartilages which supports the body of an animal or human is called its skeletal system. Human skeletal is made up of 206 bones and cartilages. Bones are hard. Cartilages are soft and elastic. Human skeleton consists of the skull, backbone, ribs, breastbone, bones in arms and legs, shoulder bone, hip or pelvic bone.
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