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Human Body and its Movement
The movement of an organisations body from one place to another is called locomotion. Locomotion involves the whole body but only a particular body part is used for locomotion.
Locomotion helps animals
a) To move from an unfavourable environment to a favourable environment.
b) To find their food, and water.
c) To protect themselves from their enemies.
d) To find their partners (mates) for reproduction.
e) To find suitable place for laying eggs or rearing their young ones.
A change in the position of any part of the body with respect to its axis is called movement. Stationary animals such as sponges, corals and sea anemone show this kind of movement. For example, when you agree or disagree with someone, you shake your head. This shaking of head is called movement of head. For any body movement, energy and coordination between different organ systems are required. All animals meet their energy requirements through nutrition and respiration.
Important movements in our body are
a) Movement of heart muscles
b) Movement of teeth and jaw during eating
c) Movement of eye lids
d) Circulation of blood in the body
Human body and its movements Our body has a lot of flexibility. It can move its parts in different direction easily.
i) You can bend your leg at the knee. You cannot bend it beyond 180°.
ii) You can rotate your arm around your shoulder. You can move your arm sideway, upwards and downwards.
iii) You can bend your arm at the elbow. You can not bent it backwards.
iv) You can turn your neck around, up and down and side to side.
The place where two or more bones meet are termed joints in other words a joint is the region of the
movement between two bones that work on one another.
In vertebrates there are three kinds of joints:
i) Perfect joints
ii) Imperfect joints
iii) Immovable or fixed joints
i) Perfect joints: Perfect joints are those which make free movement possible in various direction. Perfect joints are of four types:
a) Ball and socket joints
b) Hinge joints
c) Pivot joints
d) Gliding joints
a) Ball and Socket Joints: These joints allow movement in most directions e.g. shoulder and hip joints.
Shoulder Joints: Shoulder joint of man is made up of the rounded upper end of the humerus which fits into the shallow glenoid cavity.
Hip Joints: The hip joints is similar to the should joints. The acetabulum of the pelvic girdle is much deeper than the glenoid fossa and ball on the upper end of the femur is larger than the head of humerus.
b) Hinge Joints: These permit only to and fro movement in one plane. Joint between upper and lower arm (elbow joint). Thigh and lower leg (knee joint) and fore arm and wrist joint. Between the phalages of all the digits.
c) Pivot Joints: Such joints allow rotation only. It is this type of joint which enables you to turn your head from side to side.
d) Gliding Joints: In these joints the bones slide over each other and the movements allowed are in all planes but very limited e.g. The joints between distal end of radius and ulna.
ii) Imperfect Joints: In this type bones are separated by a layer of cartilage and a very limited amount of movement of one bone upon the other is made possible by the flexibility of the intervening cartilage.
iii) Immovable or Fixed Joints: These joints allow no movement such joints are present between the skull bones of an adult man.
The Skeletal System
The framework of bones and cartilages which supports the body of an animal or human is called its skeletal system. Human skeletal is made up of 206 bones and cartilages. Bones are hard. Cartilages are soft and elastic. Human skeleton consists of the skull, backbone, ribs, breastbone, bones in arms and legs, shoulder bone, hip or pelvic bone.
Functions of the Skeletal System
i) It forms framework of the body
ii) It provides support and gives shape to the body.
iii) It helps to protect and keep the delicate organs of the body in their proper positions e.g. bony cage made by breast bone, ribs and backbone protects heart and lungs.
iv) Brain is protected by the bones in the skull.
v) The backbone protects the spinal cord.
vi) Muscles helps in the movement of the various parts of our body. e.g. any movement of our arms or legs is supported by the muscles in these parts of the body.
Organs of the Skeletal System
i) The skull: Skull has two main parts
a) Cranium: Cranium provides cover and protection to the brain. The bones of the cranium are flat and are held firmly in a zipper like manner.
b) Facial bones: The facial bones consist of upper and lower jaws and a few other bones. The lower jaw is movable. The movement of this jaw enables us to eat, talk and sing. The skull also includes a pair of eye sockets.
ii) The backbone: The backbone (or the vertebral column) extends from the base of the skull to the hip. It consists of 33 small ring-like vertebrate joined end to end.
The first 24 vertebrae are joined by elastic-like cartilages. The main nerve cord passes through the hollow bony-tube formed by the vertebrae. The 5 vertebrae of the hip are fused and inseparable. 4 vertebrae of the tail are also fused.
The backbone has 5 regions staring from the top these are:
Neck → Chest → Belly → Hip → Tail
iii) The Chest Bones: The chest bones form a cone-shaped bony cage. The elliptical bones of the cage are called ribs.
12 pairs of ribs curve round the sides, ribs are attached to the sides of each vertebrae at the back. 10 pairs of these ribs are attached to the breast bone at the front with the help of cartilage. Two pairs of ribs in the front which free are called floating ribs. Chest bones protect lungs and heart.
iv) The Shoulder Bones: The shoulder bones are formed by the collar bone and the shoulder blade. It connects the upper part of the chest and bones of the arm.
v) The Hip or Pelvic Bones: The hip bone is formed by the fusion of three bones. The hip bones together with the hip and the tail parts of the backbone form the pelvis.
vi) The Hand Bones: The hand consists of upper arm, fore arm, wrist, palm and fingers.
a) Upper arm has one long bone and attached to the shoulder bone.
b) Fore arm consists of several small bones. c) Each finger consists of three small bones.
vii) The Leg Bones: The leg includes, the thigh, lower leg, ankle, foot and the toes.
a) The thigh bone is the strongest and longest bone in the body.
b) The lower leg consists of two bones.
c) The ankles consists of several small bones.
d) In the frontal part of the knee, there is a disc-like cap called patella. e) The foot has five longer bones.
f) Each toe has three smaller bones.
g) In a normal foot, the bones are set to form an arch-like arrangement. The feet arches provide good support to the body.
h) In a flat foot, the bones are not arched. Some people with flat foot feel pain.
viii) Cartilage: These are not as hard as the bones and can be bend. These are called cartilage. Upper part of ear is made of cartilage. Lower portion of ear (ear lobe) is fost.
Gait of Animals
Different animals use different organs to move from one place to another.
Birds: Birds have two kind of locomotion. Birds can walk on any surface with their legs. Bones of the handling are fit for walking and perching. Birds fly in the air by spreading their wings. The body of the birds is streamlined and suitable for fly. There bones are hollow and light in weight. Bony parts of the forelimbs are modified as wings. Duck and Swan can also swin in water.
Fish: Fish have a spindle-shaped streamlined body. This shape of the body helps it to move in water. Fish use their muscular tail and fins for swimming. Air filled swim bladders make the body buoyant. During swimming, the front part of the body and the tail part curve in opposite direction. This makes jerk and pushes the body forward. The paired and unpaired fins help to keep the balance of the body and to keep direction.
Snakes: The long body of snake consists of a large number of vertebrae. The adjoining vertebrae ribs and skin are interconnected with slender body muscles. Movement of snake is called slithering.
Cockroach: Cockroach can walk and climb on a surface an can also fly upto short distance in the air,. In cockroach exoskeleton is jointed and permits movement. Three pairs of joined legs attached to the breast region, help the cockroach to walk.
The two pairs of wings are attached to the breast. In the breast region there are strong and large muscles. These muscles move the legs for walking, another set of breast muscles move the wing during flying.
Earthworm: Earthworm and leeches move by contracting and expanding their bodies. There are bristle like projections called setae which help in movement. The muscular movement push their blood in the direction of the body movement.
Snail: The body of the snail is covered with a hard shell. This shell cannot help in movement. The snail comes out of a circular hole in the shell. The snail has a muscular foot which is a part of its belly and help it in locomotion.
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