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The Living Organisms and their Surroundings
Habitat is place where an organisms lives. A habit must provide to the organism:
iii) Favorable climatic conditions to survive, breed and flourish
Types of Habitat
Three main habitats in biosphere are:
a) Terrestrial habitat or Land habitat: Forest, grasslands, desert and mountain
b) Aquatic habitat or Water habitat: River, pond, lake, sea
c) Aerial or Arboreal habitat (Air or Tree): Tropical forests
a) Terrestrial Habitat: The organisms that live, grow and propagate on land are called terrestrial organisms and their habit is called terrestrial habitat.
Man, Tiger, Tree etc., called Terrestrial organisms.
b) Aquatic Habitat: The organisms that live and breed in water are called aquatic organisms and their habitat is called aquatic habitat. Whales, Fish etc., are aquatic organisms. River, oceans, lakes are aquatic habitates.
c) Arboreal habitat: Organisms that use trees for their activities are known as arboreal organisms i.e., birds, such as eagle, swallow etc., are arboreal.
The organisms which use both water and land as their habitat are known as amphibians organisms i.e., Frog, Crocodile, Bryophytes etc.
A small vision within a habitat with special geographic or climatic conditions to suit organisms better than other in called microhabitat i.e., mountainous region is a microhabitat within the terrestrial habitat.
Component Habitat: The two component of habitat are:
i) Biotic Component
ii) Abiotic Component
i) Biotic Component: Living things such as animals, plant, human beings and microorganisms are called biotic component. Biotic component are also called living components.
ii) Abiotic Component: All non living thigns such as soil, water bodies, atmosphere and meterological factor such as sun light, temperature, rainfall, wind speed etc., are called abiotic components. Abiotic components are also called non-living components.
Adaptation in Animals and Plants to Different Habitat
The tendency of an organisms to develop certain specific features which improve the chances of its survival in the environment in which it lives is known as adaptation. Examples: Camel and Desert rat are adapted to the desert habitat.
Adaptation is of two types:
i) Permanent Adaptation: Has a genetic basis and causes permanent changes in the individuals, e.g. Camel is well adapted to desert environment and not to water. Fish is well adapted to live in water.
ii) Temporary Habitat: Is a short term adapation, and is not inherited e.g. A bird adapted to live in the cage is a temporary adaptation.
i) Terrestrial Habitat: The plants and animals that live on land are said to live in terrestrial habitat. E.g. Grassland, Forests, deserts, mountains etc.
Adaptation in Desert Habitat: Desert animals: The climate of deserts is dry and hot. Desert have very little vegetation. Deserts provide little shelter for large animals from the sun.
ii) Most animals which survive in deserts are insects, birds, reptiles, and smaller mammals.
iii) Many animals living in deserts remain inactive during the day and become active during the night. This prevents loss water from their body.