THEORY Unit – II – (b) METHODS AND MATERIALS OF PAINTING
Mediums of Painting – An Introduction
"Art Medium" refers to the art materials or artist supplies used to create a work of art. Basically, it's whatever you use to make a mark upon a surface.
We have a seen that colour is a property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of which it reflects or emits light. Colour comes from light; if there was no light, we would have no colour. A light ray is composed of seven rays of colours namely violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red (VIBGYOR). When the light ray hits an object, it is reflected by the object and makes an image on the retina of our eyes. Thus, we can see an object. For example, a red object appears red because it absorbs all other colours except the red colour which is reflected back.
Another important factor on which the colour of any object depends is its pigment. In living organisms, pigment is a substance that produces colour. In animals, pigment is a natural substance that produces colour of the skin and hair. In plants, pigment is a natural substance that produces colour of leaves, flowers and stem. Pigment is also the substance in a paint or dye that gives it its colour.
What is painting?
Painting is the practice of applying paint or pigment to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements such as knives, sponges and airbrushes can also be used. In art, the term painting refers to both the act and the result of the action. The base support for painting includes surfaces such as wall, paper, canvas, wood, glass and pottery, leaf, copper and concrete.
In general, any medium of colouring and painting is made up of pigment and binder. Pigment is a material is a material that changes the colour of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption of light.
Pigment is the substance in a paint or dye that gives its colour. Binder is a substance that holds the particles of pigment together in paint. The materials of painting are
categorized based on the type of pigments and binders used in them.
Dry and wet media
The materials that do not contain any liquid such as oil or water are called dry media. Further, dry media do not require any kind of liquid in their application on the surface. Pencil, charcoal, chalk, pastels, wax crayons etc. are some of the dry media. Wet media refers to the materials which contain liquid such as oil water etc. in them. Further, the materials use any liquid such as water, oil etc. in their application are called wet media. Watercolours, poster colours, oil colours, acrylic colours, gouache colours etc. are some of the wet media in painting.
A pencil is an implement for writing or drawing which is constructed of a narrow pigment core in a protective casing (covering). Most pencil cores are made of graphite powder mixed with a clay binder. The most common pencil casing is thin wood, usually hexagonal in section and permanently bonded to the core. However, sometimes the pencil casing is cylindrical or triangular. To use the pencil, the casing must be carved or peeled off to expose the working end of the core as a sharp point. Graphite pencils (traditionally known as lead pencils) produce grey or black marks which can be easily erased.
The word pencil is derived from a Latin word “penicillus” which means “small tail”. Initially pencil cores were made of graphite tin. The word “graphine” stands for writing.
Types of pencils
The pencil in everyday use is known as HB pencil in which H stands for hardness and B stands for blackness. The pencils have been numbered according to the proportion of these qualities. The increase in the hardness and blackness is indicated with ascending numbers. For example H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H have increasing quality of hardness and lightness. Similarly 2B, 4B, 6B and 8B have increasing amount of blackness and softness.
A clutch pencil is a pencil with a replaceable and mechanically extendable solid core pigment core called a “lead”. The lead is often made of graphite which is not bonded to the outer casing (covering) and can be mechanically extended. Leads are available in various breadths and varieties such as 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7.
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