We use the term training in various contexts. We talk of training of teachers, administrators, police and army personnel, medical and paramedical functionaries including, working in nongovernmental organisations and volunteers engaged in various events. In these contexts, by training we mean, an organised and ystematic instructional process which aims at improving an individuals’ ability to play their assigned roles effectively and meaningfully. However, this kind of understanding of the term training cannot be applied to the concept of sports training. The term sports training is specifically used in the context of athletics, sports and games which could be a training of sports persons, coaches and teachers of physical education. It is also used by scientists and experts who belong to the field of sports science and medicine, sports bio-mechanics, exercise physiology, sports psychology and other fields like yoga and science movement. But even in these contexts, the concept of sports training is understood differently. In this chapter, therefore, we shall learn the meaning of sports training, its aims, characteristics and principles and also about sports skills.
5.2 Sports Training: Meaning
Sports training is a special process of preparation of sports persons based on scientific principles aimed at improving and maintaining higher performance capacity in different sports activities. It is a particular type of training designed to improve fitness and abilities to perform in a given sport. It includes strength in training, corrective and restorative exercises, conditioning and cardiovascular training. It also includes mental and psychological training and advise on nutritional values.
5.3 P erformance Development Through Sports Training
Sports training is especially focused on optimal performance in a particular sport. Its main aim is to develop the performance capacity of sports persons, so that they achieve the highest possible performance. To do so, it is essential to be mentally strong. The ability to manage stress and anxiety associated with different sports need to be strengthened. Competition in sports makes the participants face varied situations which require the individuals to be mentally fit.
5.4 Objectives of Sports Training
The main objectives of sports training are as follows.
1. Improvement of physical fitness: The performance in sports generally depends upon physical fitness of a sports person. Every sport activity needs specific type of physical fitness, and hence, the improvement of various components of physical and skills related fitness like strength, speed, coordination, endurance and flexibility is an important aim and objective of sports training.
2. Acquisition of sports skills: This includes motors skills as well as basic movement skills. Fundamental motor skills are prerequisites to the learning of sport-specific skills. Every sports activity requires to observe certain specific movement procedure to tackle a particular task. This movement procedure is known as technique and when this technique is learnt and perfected, it leads to skill development. Whenever sports persons include in technical training, they focus on acquisition of motor skills relevant to a particular sport. Fundamental motor skills such as hopping, jumping, skipping, kicking, throwing, catching and striking are prerequisites to the learning of sport specific skills of basketball, football, gymnastics, tennis, cricket, badminton etc.
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