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State Of Matter Class 11 Chemistry NCERT
Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter State Of Matter in standard 11. This NCERT Book for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
State Of Matter NCERT Class 11
STATES OF MATTER
In previous units we have learnt about the properties related to single particle of matter, such as atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electronic charge density, molecular shape and polarity, etc. Most of the observable characteristics of chemical systems with which we are familiar represent bulk properties of matter, i.e., the properties associated with a collection of a large number of atoms, ions or molecules. For example, an individual molecule of a liquid does not boil but the bulk boils. Collection of water molecules have wetting properties; individual molecules do not wet.
Water can exist as ice, which is a solid; it can exist as liquid; or it can exist in the gaseous state as water vapour or steam. Physical properties of ice, water and steam are very different. In all the three states of water chemical composition of water remains the same i.e., H2O. Characteristics of the three states of water depend on the energies of molecules and on the manner in which water molecules aggregate. Same is true for other substances also.
Chemical properties of a substance do not change with the change of its physical state; but rate of chemical reactions do depend upon the physical state. Many timesin calculations while dealing with data of experiments we require knowledge of the state of matter. Therefore, it becomes necessary for a chemist to know the physical The snowflake falls, yet lays not long Its feathíry grasp on Mother Earth Ere Sun returns it to the vapors Whence it came, Or to waters tumbling down the rocky slope.
laws which govern the behaviour of matter in different states. In this unit, we will learn more about these three physical states of matter particularly liquid and gaseous states. To begin with, it is necessary to understand the nature of intermolecular forces, molecular interactions and effect of thermal energy on the motion of particles because a balance between these determines the state of a substance.
5.1 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
Intermolecular forces are the forces of attraction and repulsion between interacting particles (atoms and molecules). This term does not include the electrostatic forces that exist between the two oppositely charged ions and the forces that hold atoms of a molecule together i.e., covalent bonds.
Attractive intermolecular forces are known as van der Waals forces, in honour of Dutch scientist Johannes van der Waals (1837- 1923), who explained the deviation of real gases from the ideal behaviour through these forces. We will learn about this later in this unit. van der Waals forces vary considerably in magnitude and include dispersion forces or London forces, dipole-dipole forces, and dipole-induced dipole forces. A particularly strong type of dipole-dipole interaction is hydrogen bonding. Only a few elements can participate in hydrogen bond formation, therefore it is treated as a separate category. We have already learnt about this interaction in Unit 4.
At this point, it is important to note that attractive forces between an ion and a dipole are known as ion-dipole forces and these are not van der Waals forces. We will now learn about different types of van der Waals forces.
5.1.1 Dispersion Forces or London Forces
Atoms and nonpolar molecules are electrically symmetrical and have no dipole moment because their electronic charge cloud is symmetrically distributed. But a dipole may develop momentarily even in such atoms and molecules. This can be understood as follows. Suppose we have two atoms ‘A’ and ‘B’ in the close vicinity of each other (Fig. 5.1a).
It may so happen that momentarily electronic charge distribution in one of the atoms, say ‘A’, becomes unsymmetrical i.e., the charge cloud is more on one side than the other (Fig. 5.1 b and c). This results in the development of instantaneous dipole on the atom ‘A’ for a very short time. This instantaneous or transient dipole distorts the electron density of the other atom ‘B’, which is close to it and as a consequence a dipole is induced in the atom ‘B’.
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