Read and download NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium chapter in NCERT book for Class 11 Chemistry. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2022 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Chemistry textbook for Class 11 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter
Equilibrium Class 11 Chemistry NCERT
Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Equilibrium in standard 11. This NCERT Book for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Equilibrium NCERT Class 11
Chemical equilibria are important in numerous biological and environmental processes. For example, equilibria involving O2 molecules and the protein hemoglobin play a crucial role in the transport and delivery of O2 from our lungs to our muscles. Similar equilibria involving CO molecules and hemoglobin account for the toxicity of CO.
When a liquid evaporates in a closed container, molecules with relatively higher kinetic energy escape the liquid surface into the vapour phase and number of liquid molecules from the vapour phase strike the liquid surface and are retained in the liquid phase. It gives rise to a constant vapour pressure because of an equilibrium in which the number of molecules leaving the liquid equals the number returning to liquid from the vapour. We say that the system has reached equilibrium state at this stage. However, this is not static equilibrium and there is a lot of activity at the boundary between the liquid and the vapour. Thus, at equilibrium, the rate of evaporation is equal to the rate of condensation. It may be represented by
H2O (l) == H2O (vap)
The double half arrows indicate that the processes in both the directions are going on simultaneously. The mixture of reactants and products in the equilibrium state is called an equilibrium mixture.
Equilibrium can be established for both physical processes and chemical reactions. The reaction may be fast or slow depending on the experimental conditions and the nature of the reactants. When the reactants in a closed vessel at a particular temperature react to give products, the concentrations of the reactants keep on decreasing, while those of products keep on increasing for some time after which there is no change in the concentrations of either of the reactants or products. This stage of the system is the dynamic equilibrium and the rates of the forward and reverse reactions become equal. It is due to this dynamic equilibrium stage that there is no change in the concentrations of various species in the reaction mixture. Based on the extent to which the reactions proceed, the state of chemical equilibrium in a chemical reaction may be classified in three groups.
(i) The reactions that proceed nearly to completion and only negligible concentrations of the reactants are left. In some cases, it may not be even possible to detect these experimentally.
(ii) The reactions in which only small amounts of products are formed and most of the reactants remain unchanged at equilibrium stage.
(iii) The reactions in which the concentrations of the reactants and products are comparable, when the system is in equilibrium.
The extent of a reaction in equilibrium varies with the experimental conditions such as concentrations of reactants, temperature, etc. Optimisation of the operational conditions is very important in industry and laboratory so that equilibrium is favorable in the direction of the desired product. Some important aspects of equilibrium involving physical and chemical processes are dealt in this unit along with the equilibrium involving ions in aqueous solutions which is called as ionic equilibrium.
7.1 EQUILIBRIUM IN PHYSICAL PROCESSES
The characteristics of system at equilibrium are better understood if we examine some physical processes. The most familiar examples are phase transformation processes, e.g.,
solid == liquid
7.1.1 Solid-Liquid Equilibrium
Ice and water kept in a perfectly insulated thermos flask (no exchange of heat between its contents and the surroundings) at 273K and the atmospheric pressure are in equilibrium state and the system shows interesting characteristic features. We observe that the mass of ice and water do not change with time and the temperature remains constant. However, the equilibrium is not static. The intense activity can be noticed at the boundary between ice and water.
Molecules from the liquid water collide against ice and adhere to it and some molecules of ice escape into liquid phase. There is no change of mass of ice and water, as the rates of transfer of molecules from ice into water and of reverse transfer from water into ice are equal at atmospheric pressure and 273 K.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium
Click for more Chemistry Study Material ›
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Some Basic Concepts Of Chemistry|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Structure of Atom|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Classification of Elements and Periodicity In Properties|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry State Of Matter|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry The s Block Elements|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry The p Block Elements|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Some Basic Priciples and Techniques|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbons|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Answer of Some Selected Problems|
|NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Answer to Some Selected Problems|