NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbons

Read and download NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbons chapter in NCERT book for Class 11 Chemistry. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Chemistry textbook for Class 11 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter

Hydrocarbons Class 11 Chemistry NCERT

Class 11 Chemistry students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Hydrocarbons in standard 11. This NCERT Book for Grade 11 Chemistry will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks

Hydrocarbons NCERT Class 11

HYDROCARBONS

The term ‘hydrocarbon’ is self-explanatory which means compounds of carbon and hydrogen only. Hydrocarbons play a key role in our daily life. You must be familiar with the terms ‘LPG’ and ‘CNG’ used as fuels. LPG is the abbreviated form of liquified petroleum gas whereas CNG stands for compressed natural gas. Another term ‘LNG’ (liquified natural gas) is also in news these days. This is also a fuel and is obtained by liquifaction of natural gas. 

Petrol, diesel and kerosene oil are obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum found under the earth’s crust. Coal gas is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal. Natural gas is found in upper strata during drilling of oil wells. The gas after compression is known as compressed natural gas.

LPG is used as a domestic fuel with the least pollution. Kerosene oil is also used as a domestic fuel but it causes some pollution. Automobiles need fuels like petrol, diesel and CNG. Petrol and CNG operated automobiles cause less pollution. All these fuels contain mixture of hydrocarbons, which are sources of energy. Hydrocarbons are also used for the manufacture of polymers like polythene, polypropene, polystyrene etc. Higher hydrocarbons are used as solvents for paints.

They are also used as the starting materials for manufacture of many dyes and drugs. Thus, you can well understand the importance of hydrocarbons in your daily life. In this unit,you will learn more about hydrocarbons.

13.1 CLASSIFICATION

Hydrocarbons are of different types. Depending upon the types of carbon-carbon bonds present, they can be classified into three main categories – (i) saturated Hydrocarbons are the important sources of energy. (ii) unsaturated and (iii) aromatic hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen single bonds. If different carbon atoms are joined together to form open chain of carbon atoms with single bonds, they are termed as alkanes as you have already studied in Unit 12. On the other hand, if carbon atoms form a closed chain or a ring, they are termed as cycloalkanes.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-carbon multiple bonds – double bonds, triple bonds or both. Aromatic hydrocarbons are a special type of cyclic compounds. You can construct a large number of models of such molecules of both types (open chain and close chain) keeping in mind that carbon is tetravalent and hydrogen is monovalent. For making models of alkanes, you can use toothpicks for bonds and plasticine balls for atoms. For alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons, spring models can be constructed.

13.2 ALKANES

As already mentioned, alkanes are saturated open chain hydrocarbons containing carbon - carbon single bonds. Methane (CH4) is the first member of this family. Methane is a gas found in coal mines and marshy places. If you replace one hydrogen atom of methane by carbon and join the required number of hydrogens to satisfy the tetravalence of the other carbon atom, what do you get? You get C2H6. This hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H6 is known as ethane. Thus you can consider C2H6 as derived from CH4 by replacing one hydrogen atom by -CH3 group. Go on constructing alkanes by doing this theoretical exercise i.e., replacing hydrogen atom by –CH3 group. The next molecules will be C3H8, C4H10 …

These hydrocarbons are inert under normal conditions as they do not react with acids, bases and other reagents. Hence, they were earlier known as paraffins (latin : parum, little; affinis, affinity). Can you think of the general formula for alkane family or homologous series? The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n stands for number of carbon atoms and 2n+2 for number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Can you recall the structure of methane? According to VSEPR theory (Unit 4), methane has a tetrahedral structure (Fig. 13.1) which is multiplanar, in which carbon atom lies at the centre and the four hydrogen atoms lie at the four corners of a regular tetrahedron. All H-C-H bond angles are of 109.5°.


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Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Some Basic Concepts Of Chemistry
Chapter 2 Structure of Atom
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Structure of Atom
Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Classification of Elements and Periodicity In Properties
Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Chapter 5 States of Matter
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry State Of Matter
Chapter 6 Thermodynamics
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Thermodynamics
Chapter 7 Equilibrium
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Equilibrium
Chapter 8 Redox Reactions
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Redox Reactions
Chapter 9 Hydrogen
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Hydrogen
Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry The s Block Elements
Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry The p Block Elements
Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles & Techniques
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Some Basic Priciples and Techniques
Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbons
Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Environmental Chemistry
Other Chapters
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Titrimetric Analysis
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Chemical Equilibrium Ionic Equilibrium
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Information about Investigatory Projects
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Introduction
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual ph and ph change in Aqueous Solutions
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Purification and Criteria of Purity
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Systematics Qualitative Analysis
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Lab Manual Basic Laboratory Techniques
Part I Answer to Some Selected Problems
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Answer of Some Selected Problems
Part I Appendices
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 4 Physical Constants
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 5 Some Useful Conversion Factores
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 6 Thernodynamic Data at 298 K
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 7 Standard Potentials at 298 K in Electrochemical order
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 1
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 2 Elements Their Atomic Number and Molar Mass
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Appendix 3
Part II Answer to Some Selected Problems
NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Answer to Some Selected Problems

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