CBSE Class 11 English Writing Grammar Concepts (Part B). Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
Determiner is a word that is used before a noun in order to show which thing you mean. In the phrases ‘the car’ and ‘some cars’, ‘the’ and ‘some’ are determiners.
-A word such as the, some, my etc. that comes before a noun to show how the noun is being used.
List of the Determiners:
i) Articles (a, an & the)
ii) Distributives (each, every, either), Demonstrative (this, that, these, those), Quantifiers (little, some, any, few), Possessive (our, your, my), Interrogatives (what, which, whose), all, both, half, many, one fifth, one tenth, two third, cardinal numbers & ordinal numbers.
The indefinite article (Before Noun = singular, countable & common).
-> The form ‘a’ is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound:
* A man
* A hat
* A European
* A one-way street
-> The form ‘an’ is used before words beginning with a vowel or words beginning with a mute h:
* An apple
* An onion
* An hour
* An L-plate
* An MP
* An SOS
* An M.A.
-> Before a singular, countable noun.
* I need a visa.
* He bought an ice-cream.
-> Before a singular noun which is used an example of a class.
* A car must be insured = All cars/Any cars must be insured.
* A child needs healthy nourishment = All children need/ any children needs healthy nourishment.
-> With a noun complement.
* It is an earthquake.
* She’ll be a dancer.
-> In certain expressions of quantity.
A lot of, a couple, a great many, a great deal of, a dozen etc.
-> With certain numbers.
a hundred, a thousand, a kilo and a half, a third, a quarter.
-> In expressions of price, speed, ratio etc.
5p a kilo, L 1 a meter, 10p a dozen, for times a day (Here a/an = per)
-> In exclamations before singular, countable nouns:
Such a long queue!
What a pretty girl !
-> A Mr. Shaw (= a man called ‘Shaw’ and implies that he is a stranger to the speaker.) Without ‘a’ implies that the speaker knows Mr. Shaw or knows of his existence.
-> The: (the definite article)
-> The object or group of objects is unique:
- The earth, the sea, the sky, the equator.
-> Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned a second time:
- His car struck a tree; you can still see the mark on the tree.
-> Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause:
- The girl in blue
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