Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline
- Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes;
- Branches of geography; importance of physical geography.
Unit-2: The Earth
- Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth;
- Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics;
- Earthquakes and volcanoes.
- Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics;
- Landforms and their evolution
- Geomorphic processes:weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation
Unit 4: Climate
- Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.
- Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperaturefactors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
- Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
- Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
- World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.
Unit 5: Water (Oceans)
- Hydrological Cycle.
- Oceans - distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
Unit 6: Life on the Earth
- Biosphere - importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.
Unit 7: Map work on identification of features based on the above units on the outline political map of the world.
Part B. India - Physical Environment
Unit 8: Introduction
- Location-space relations and India’s place in the world.
Unit 9: Physiography
- Structure and Relief;
- Drainage systems: concept of watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular;
- Physiographic divisions.
Please refer to attached file for CBSE Class 11 Geography Syllabus 2012-2013
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