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INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or hear others talking about weather. You must know that weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You must have noticed that when it is hot continued for several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes when it is very windy and chilly, you would like to have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and Novembe
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, cool, dry winds blow from north to the south. The sun rays do not fall directly in the region as a result, the temperatures are quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high. Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons. The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season. However, the climate is about the average weather condition, which have been measured over many years. The climate of India has broadly been described as Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word ‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a bountiful crop.
The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,we experience regional differences in the climate of India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the coast, these places are very humid. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while in a particular year it might not rain at all in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
We see a variety of plant life in our surroundings. How nice it is to play in a field with green grasses. There are also small plants called bushes and shrubs like cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides there are many tall trees some with many branches and leaves like neem, mango or some which stand with few leaves such as palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation. Do you wonder how these differ from each other. Different types of natural vegetation are dependent on different climatic conditions, among which the amount of rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation. Vegetation of India can be divided into five types – Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical deciduous forest, Thorny bushes, Mountain vegetation and Mangrove forests.
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?
(b) Name the different seasons in India.
(c) What is natural vegetation?
(d) Name the different types of vegetation found in India.
(e) What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
(f) Why is tropical rainforest also called evergreen forest?
2. Tick the correct answers.
(a) The world’s highest rainfall occurs in
(i) Mumbai (ii) Asansol (iii) Mawsynram
(b) Mangrove forests can thrive in
(i) saline water (ii) fresh water (iii) polluted water
(c) Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in
(i) mangrove forests
(ii) tropical deciduous forests
(iii) tropical evergreen forests
(d) Wild goat and snow leopards are found in
(i) Himalayan region
(ii) Peninsular region
(iii) Gir forests
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 6 Geography India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife