NCERT Book for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 Human Development
Class 11 Psychology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Chapter 4 Human Development in standard 11. This NCERT Book for Grade 11 Psychology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Chapter 4 Human Development NCERT Book Class 11
If you look around, you will notice that from birth onwards changes of various kinds are taking place in an individual’s life, which continue even during old age. Over a span of time, a human grows and develops, learns to communicate, walk, count, and read and write. S/he also learns to distinguish between right and wrong. S/he makes friends, goes through puberty, gets married, rears children, and grows old. Even though we differ from each other, we share many commonalities.
Most of us learn to walk by the first year and talk by the second year. This chapter will familiarise you with the changes observed in people during the course of their lifespan in different domains. You will learn about key developmental processes and changes taking place in major periods during the life-span: prenatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. This would be a journey of personal understanding and self-discovery which should help in your future development. The study of human development would also help you to deal with others better.
MEANING OF DEVELOPMENT
When we think of development, invariably we think of physical changes, as these are commonly observed at home with younger siblings, with parents and grandparents, in school with peers or others around us. From conception until the moment of death, we not only change physically, but we also change in the way we think, use language, and developsocial relationships. Remember that, changes are not confined to any one area of a person’s life; they occur in the person in an integrated manner. Development is the pattern of progressive, orderly, and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue throughout life. Development mostly involves changes — both growth and decline, as observed during old age.
Development is influenced by an interplay of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional processes. Development due to genes inherited from parents, such as in height and weight, brain, heart, and lungs development, etc. all point towards the role of biological processes. The role of cognitive processes in development relate to mental activities associated with the processes of knowing, and experiencing, such as thought, perception, attention, problem solving, etc.
Socio-emotional processes that influence development refer to changes in an individual’s interactions with other people, changes in emotions, and in personality. A child’s hug to her/his mother, a young girl’s affectionate gesture to her/his sibling, or an adolescent’s sorrow at losing a match are all reflections of socio-emotional processes deeply involved in human development.
Although you would be reading about the different processes in different chapters of this textbook, it is important to remember that the biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional processes are interwoven. These processes influence changes in the development of the individual as a whole throughout the human life-span.
Life-Span Perspective on Development The study of development according to the Life-Span Perspective (LSP) includes the following assumptions :
1. Development is lifelong, i.e. it takes place across all age groups starting from conception to old age. It includes both gains and losses, which interact in dynamic (change in one aspect goes with changes in others) ways throughout the life-span.
2. The various processes of human development, i.e. biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional are interwoven in the development of a person throughout the life-span.
3. Development is multi-directional. Some dimensions or components of a given dimension of development may increase, while others show decrement. For example, the experiences of adults may make themwiser and guide their decisions. However, with an increase in age, one’s performance is likely to decrease on tasks requiring speed, such as running.
4. Development is highly plastic, i.e. within person, modifiability is found in psychological development, though plasticity varies among individuals. This means skills and abilities can be improved or developed throughout the life-span.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 11 Psychology - Human Development
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