NCERT Book for Class 11 Psychology Sleep And Wakefulness
Class 11 Psychology students should refer to the following NCERT Book chapter Sleep And Wakefulness in standard 11. This NCERT Book for Grade 11 Psychology will be very useful for exams and help you to score good marks
Sleep And Wakefulness NCERT Book Class 11
3.1 Sleep and wakefulness
Sleep and wakefulness are two states of consciousness that we all experience. They are different from one another and yet have much in common. We are in a state of wakefulness during most part of the day. This is a state during which we are alert and engage in various activities. However the level of alertness varies at different times, being lower when we awaken from sleep and gradually increasing as we become engrossed in our daily activities. Alertness is at its maximum when we are engaged in difficult or challenging tasks. During the state of wakefulness we are aware of our own perceptions, thoughts, feelings and sensations as well as being aware of the external world. It is a state of awareness of ourselves and the world around us. Sometimes when we are awake we are lost in daydreaming- a state where consciousness seems to be drifting and is dominated by wishful thoughts. Sometimes we can even perform two tasks at the same time. For instance many people do driving and listen to music. This generally happens when one of the two tasks is fairly automatic and does not require much attention.
We spend one third of our lives sleeping. Many bodily processes--- sleep-wake cycle, as well as body temperature, hormonal secretion, blood pressure and heart rate fluctuate in a 24 hour cycle of day and night. This fluctuation is known as circadian rhythm. It is controlled by a small area in the hypothalamus in the brain. Jet lag is an example of body’s disrupted circadian rhythm.
It is through EEG that one can study the brain wave pattern during the states of wakefulness and sleep. It is found that when we are awake and alert, the brain wave pattern is characterized by fast, low amplitude beta waves. As we relax and close our eyes, we enter a relaxed wakefulness which is characterized by slower, rhythmic cycles called alpha waves.
Sleep has been divided into four stages, moving from light to deep sleep. Sleep cycle generally repeats about every 90 mins. The average person has about 4 to 5 sleep cycles during a night’s sleep.
3.2 Globalization and Acculturation (in Indian Context)
In recent years, the study of Globalization and its consequences has attained considerable significance. Globalization can be defined as a process in which ideas and behaviours, technology and information are exchanged and disseminated between different cultures worldwide. We are all touched by globalization –in the clothes we wear; in the information we receive etc. Globalization can be understood as a case of cultural diffusion leading to positive consequences, such as promoting social tolerance and co-operation, cultural understanding, and social awareness toward differences- equivalent to some sort of universal humanism. However globalization in all its different forms and manifestations has resulted in rapid cultural change, which many people find difficult to adjust to. For example, the spread of multinational corporations (MNC's) has been accompanied social mobility leading to changes in family structure. More and more families are becoming nuclear and the joint family system is eroding. Young boys and girls are moving away from home, both within the country and abroad, in connection with educational and opportunities, and living independently. DTH or cable network has also facilitated exposure to other cultures leading Indian society to become more open and ready to experiment with western practices and traditions, ranging from using western styled outfits to celebration of friendship day/ Valentine’s Day etc. Acculturation based on cultural contact is a major source of social change and cultural complexity.
Please refer to the link below - CBSE Class 11 Psychology Sleep and wakefulness
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