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12 Reproduction in Plants
To produce its kind is a characteristic of all living organisms. You have already learnt this in Class VI. The production of new individuals from their parents is known as reproduction. But, how do plants reproduce? There are different modes of reproduction in plants which we shall learn in this chapter.
12.1 MODES OF REPRODUCTION
In Class VI you learnt about different parts of a flowering plant. Try to list the various parts of a plant and write the functions of each. Most plants have roots, stems and leaves. These are called the vegetative parts of a plant. After a certain period of growth, most plants bear flowers. You may have seen the mango trees flowering in spring. It is these flowers that give rise to juicy mango fruit we enjoy in summer. We eat the fruits and usually discard the seeds. Seeds germinate and form new plants. So, what is the function of flowers in plants? The flowers perform the function of reproduction in plants. Flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant. A flower may have either the male part or the female part or both male and female parts.
There are several ways by which plants produce their offspring. These are categorised into two types: (i) asexual, and (ii) sexual reproduction. In asexual reproduction plants can give rise to newplants without seeds, whereas in sexual reproduction, new plants are obtained from seeds.
In asexual reproduction new plants are obtained without production of seeds or spores.
It is a type of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced from roots, stems, leaves and buds. Since reproduction is through the vegetative parts of the plant, it is known as vegetative propagation.
1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Production of new individuals from the vegetative part of parent is called_____________.
(b) A flower may have either male or female reproductive parts. Such a flower is called_____________.
(c) The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same or of another flower of the same kind is known as ________.
(d) The fusion of male and female gametes is termed as __________.
(e) Seed dispersal takes place by means of ______ and _____________.
2. Describe the different methods of asexual reproduction. Give examples.
3. Explain what you understand by sexual reproduction.
4. State the main difference between asexual and sexual reproduction.
5. Sketch the reproductive parts of a flower.
6. Explain the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination.
7. How does the process of fertilisation take place in flowers?
8. Describe the various ways by which seeds are dispersed.
9. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
(a) The reproductive part of a plant is the
(i) leaf (ii) stem (iii) root (iv) flower
(b) The process of fusion of the male and the female gametes is called
(i) fertilisation (ii) pollination
(iii) reproduction (iv) seed formation
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 7 Science Reproduction in Plants
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