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Getting to Know Plants
Go outside and observe all the plants around you. Do you se that some plants are small, some very big, while some are just patches of green on the soil? Some have green leaves, while some others have reddish ones. Some have huge red flowers, some have tiny blue ones, while some have none. We do see a variety of plants existing all around us — near our homes, in the school ground, on the way to the school, in the parks and gardens, isn’t it? Let us get to know the different parts of any plant. This will help us understand the differences between Fig. 7.1 Parts of a plant plants of different kinds. Can you label the stem, branches, roots, leaves, and flowers of the plant shown in Fig.7.1? Colour the parts of the plant. Let us now go on a Nature walk, make friends with many different kinds of plants and examine them closely (Fig. 7.2).
7.1 HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES
Look closely at the stem and branches.
1. Plants much smaller than you.
2. Plants that are about your size, and
3. Plants which are much taller than you.
Feel their stem and try to bend them gently to see if they are tender or hard. Take care that the stem does not break.Hug the tall plants to see how thick their stems are!
We also need to notice from where the branches grow in some plants — close to the ground or higher up on the stem. We will now group all the plants we observed, in Table 7.1. Where do the branches appear 2 and 3 for many more plants. Fill Column 4 after you have studied later part of this section. Based on these characters most plants can be classified into three categories: herbs, shrubs and trees. An example of each is shown in Fig.7.3. Plants with green and tender stems are called herbs. They are usually short and may not have many branches [Fig.7.3 (a)].
Some plants have the stem branching out near the base. The stem is hard but not very thick. Such plants are called shrubs [Fig .7.3(b)]. Some plants are very tall and have hard and thick brown stem. The stems have branches in the upper part, much above the ground. Such plants are called trees [Fig.7.3(c)]. Based on the above characteristics can you now correctly classify the plants listed by you and complete column 4 in Table 7.1? are different from the herbs, shrubs and trees. Perhaps there are some plants in your school or at home that you take care of. Write down the names of any two trees, shrubs, herbs or creepers growing in your house or school.
We would require a glass, water, red ink, a herb, and a blade for this activity. Pour water to fill one-third of the glass. Add a few drops of red ink to the water. Cut the base of the stem of the
Look at leaves of plants around you and draw them in your notebook. Are all the leaves the same in size, shape and colour? How are they attached to the stem? The part of a leaf by which it is attached to the stem is called petiole. The broad, green part of the leaf is called lamina (Fig. 7.8). Can you identify these parts of the leaves in plants around you? Do all the leaves have petioles? The water and minerals go to leaves and other plant parts attached to the stem, through narrow tubes inside the stem. Paheli did this activity with herbs having white flowers. She put one branch with a white flower in the water in glass A and added a few drops of red ink to the water. She did a funny thing with another branch. She split it half way along its length and put the two ends in the water in glasses B and C (Fig. 7.7). She put a few drops of red Let us get to know the leaf better by taking its impression! If you thought that leaves cannot sign, here is an activity which will make you think again.
1. Correct the following statements and rewrite them in your notebook.
(a) Stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
(b) Leaves hold the plant upright.
(c) Roots conduct water to the leaves.
(d) The number of petals and sepals in a flower is always equal.
(e) If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are also joined together.
(f) If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil is joined to the petal.
2. Draw (a) a leaf, (b) a taproot and (c) a flower, you have studied for Table 7.3.
3. Can you find a plant in your house or in your neighborhood, which has a long but a weak stem? Write its name. In which category would you classify it?
4. What is the function of a stem in a plant?
5. Which of the following leaves have reticulate venation? Wheat, tulsi, maize, grass, coriander (dhania), China rose
6. If a plant has fibrous root, what type of venation do its leaves likely to have?
7. If a plant has leaves with reticulate venation, what kind of roots will it have?
8. Is it possible for you to recognize the leaves without seeing them? How?
9. Write the names of the parts of a flower.
10. Which of the following plants have you seen? of those that you have seen, which one have flowers? Grass, maize, wheat, chilli, tomato, tulsi, pipal, shisham, banyan, mango, jamun, guava, pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon, sugarcane, potato, groundnut
11. Name the part of the plant which produces its food. Name this process.
12. In which part of a flower, you are likely to find the ovary?
13. Name two flowers, each with joined and separated sepals.
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