Read and download NCERT Class 10 Maths Proofs In Mathematics chapter in NCERT book for Class 10 Mathematics. You can download latest NCERT eBooks for 2021 chapter wise in PDF format free from Studiestoday.com. This Mathematics textbook for Class 10 is designed by NCERT and is very useful for students. Please also refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 10 Mathematics to understand the answers of the exercise questions given at the end of this chapter
The ability to reason and think clearly is extremely useful in our daily life. For example, suppose a politician tells you, ‘If you are interested in a clean government, then you should vote for me.’ What he actually wants you to believe is that if you do not vote for him, then you may not get a clean government. Similarly, if an advertisement tells you, ‘The intelligent wear XYZ shoes’, what the company wants you to conclude is that if you do not wear XYZ shoes, then you are not intelligent enough. You can yourself observe that both the above statements may mislead the general public. So, if we understand the process of reasoning correctly, we do not fall into such traps unknowingly.
The correct use of reasoning is at the core of mathematics, especially in constructing proofs. In Class IX, you were introduced to the idea of proofs, and you actually proved many statements, especially in geometry. Recall that a proof is made up of several mathematical statements, each of which is logically deduced from a previous statement in the proof, or from a theorem proved earlier, or an axiom, or the hypotheses. The main tool, we use in constructing a proof, is the process of deductive reasoning.
We start the study of this chapter with a review of what a mathematical statement is. Then, we proceed to sharpen our skills in deductive reasoning using several examples. We shall also deal with the concept of negation and finding the negation of a given statement. Then, we discuss what it means to find the converse of a given statement. Finally, we review the ingredients of a proof learnt in Class IX by analysing the proofs of several theorems. Here, we also discuss the idea of proof by contradiction, which you have come across in Class IX and many other chapters of this book.
A1.2 Mathematical Statements Revisited
Recall, that a ‘statement’ is a meaningful sentence which is not an order, or an exclamation or a question. For example, ‘Which two teams are playing in the
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