CBSE Class 8 Social Science Colonisation of India Notes. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. The concepts should be clear which will help in faster learning. The attached concepts made as per NCERT and CBSE pattern will help the student to understand the chapter and score better marks in the examinations.
COLONISATION OF INDIA
*During 17th and 18th century, India had trade relations with many European powers. Such trade was mainly a maritime trade.
* The rulers of European countries framed economic policies to protect their countries overseas trade interests against foreign competition. This was called mercantilism.
* Mercantilism led to intense rivalry among countries and resulted in wars on land and sea. The first European traders were Portuguese, Dutch, French and England.
Establishment of British trade settlement in India :-
The English East India Company established trade settlements run by company's recruits called factors. These settlements were called factories.
Consisted of godown for goods and office for maintaining records and residential quarters for the company servents. British traded in Indian textile, Indigo, spices, saltpetre and established 1st English factory at Surat in Gujarat. Soon British settlements were at Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. The French also established its trade settlements in India at Pondicherry, Mahe, Chandar Nagar and Karaikal. The disintegration of Mughal empire in India provided the ideal conditions for English & French trading companies to settle in India. English and French were trade rivals not only in Europe but also in India and this led to the 3–Anglo French wars called the CARNATIC WARS (1744–1763). English called Coromandal coast as Carnatic region.
The first Carnatic war (1746–1748)
The main cause of this war was the England and France were rivals in Austrian war which broke out in Europe in 1742. England and France took opposite sides. Their interest clashed in America & India and so England and France come into war in India too and when war ended in Europe in 1748, it ended in India too in 1748. In this war the French had captured Fort St. George from Britain in India but at the end France gave it back to Britain and the war raised the prestige of Duplex i.e. French Governir and French also defeated Nawab Anwar-ud-din & Arcot.
The Second Carnatic War (1749–54)
Robert Clive, the clerk of English East India Company had understood the importance of French victory, was an ambitious & daring person, he attacked Arcot and captured it and French lost the war and had to pay heavy war indemnity and the new Governor General of French had to enter into a treaty with English known as the Treaty of Pondicherry.
The Third Carnatic war (1756–1760)
When 7 year war broke out in Europe, the war started in India too. This time the new Governor Lally of French was determined to Dust the English out of India but coincidently failed and was defeated badly. The French lost all their possession in India.
After the 3 long Carnatic wars, French post were confined to Pondicherry, Yanam, Mahe and Chandarnagar in India.
* After the 3 Carnatic wars, British established Indian Army to protect its Indian trade settlements from hostile local rulers and rival European companies and tales on British colonised India with the help Indian Army.
Composition of the Army :-
*British army consisted of Royal troops who were only Britishers.
* The other group counsisted of company's troops which consisted of both European and Indian soldiers.
*The Indian soldiers were called SEPOYS. They belonged to company troops and the highest position was that of a subedar – meaning officer.
* All high posts were reserved for Europeans.
Conquest of Bengal :-
*Bengal was the largest & richest (fertile) province of India under Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula, who did not permit British to expand their territories and Fortification against his orders and misusing trading rights. This gave rise to a war between Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula and British. called the Battle of Plassey (Palashe) in 1757.
* British Government bribed the military commander in Chief Mir Jafar and won the battle. Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated and killed and the company made Mir Jafar, the new ruler in return for a large sum of money, the Zamindari (right to collect revenue) of 24 parganas in Bengal and right to free trade.
* Battle of Plassey brought a turning point for the British. It trasformed the company from a mere traders to rulers.
* Later, Mir Jafar also failed to meet the heavy monetary demands made by the company. The company detnroned Mir Jafar and made his son-in-law (Mir Qasim) the ruler of Bengal who in return gave company the zamindari of Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong.
Battle of Buxar 1764 :-
*Mir Qasim as a Nawab of Bengal, tried to maintain his control over Bengal and denied undue trade privileges to British. So the British declared war against him and defeated in 1763 and once again restored Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal and thus in Battle of Buxar, British gained unquestioned authority over Bengal..
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