NCERT Class 12 Geography Transport and Communication

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We use many items in our daily life. From tooth paste to our bed tea, milk, clothes, soaps, food items, etc. are required every day. All these can be purchased from the market. Have you ever thought as to how these items are brought from the site of production? All the production is meant for consumption. From the fields and factory, the produce is brought to the place from where consumers purchase it. It is the transportation of these items from the site of their production to the market which make them available to the consumer. We not only use material things like fruits, vegetables, books, clothes, etc. but also use ideas, views and messages in our daily life. Do you know we exchange our views, ideas and messages from one place to another or one individual to another while communicating with the help of various means?

The use of transport and communication depends upon our need to move things from place of their availability to the place of their use. Human-beings use various methods to move goods, commodities, ideas from one place to another.

The following diagram shows the major means of transportation.

Land Transpor

The pathways and unmetalled roads have been used for transportation in India since ancient times. With the economic and technological development, metalled roads and railways were developed to move large volume of goods and people from one place to another. Ropeways, cableways and pipelines were devised to cater to the demands of transporting specific goods under special circumstances.

Road Transport

India has one of the largest road networks in the world with a total length of 33.1 lakh km (2005). About 85 per cent of passenger and 70 (1961) was introduced to improve the conditions of roads in India. However, roads continue to concentrate in and around urban centres. Rural and remote areas had the least connectivity by road.

For the purpose of construction and maintenance, roads are classified as National Highways (NH), State Highways(SH), Major District Roads and Rural Roads.



1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

   (i) In how many zones has the Indian Railways system been divided?

       (a) 9                         (c) 16

       (b) 12                       (d) 14

  (ii) Which one of the following is the longest highway of India?

      (a) N.H.-1                   (c) N.H.-7

      (b) N.H.-6                   (d) N.H.-8

  (iii) On which river and between which two places does the National Water Way No. 1 lie?

      (a) The Brahmaputra, Sadiya-Dhubri

      (b) The Ganga, Haldia-Allahabad

      (c) West Coast Canal, Kottapuram to Kollam

  (iv) In which of the following year, the first radio programme was broadcast?

      (a) 1911                     (c) 1927

      (b) 1936                     (d) 1923

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

  (i) Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.

  (ii) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of pipeline transportation.

  (iii) What do you mean by ‘communication’?

  (iv) Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian in the air transport of India.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

  (i) Which are the chief means of transportation in India? Discuss the factors affecting their development.

  (ii) Give a detailed account of the development of railways in India and highlight their importance.

  (iii) Describe the role of roads in the economic development of India.


Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Geography Transport and Communication


Click on the text For more study material for Geography please click here - Geography

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