CBSE, Class XII Biology

CBSE class 12 biology NCERT Solutions, latest sample papers with solutions, projects, past year boards question papers solved, latest syllabus and other useful study material, free download in pdf study material for biology, practice to get better marks in examinations. all study material has been prepared based on latest guidelines, term examination pattern and blueprint issued by cbse and ncert

click on tabs below for class 12 biology worksheets, assignments, syllabus, ncert cbse books, ncert solutions, hots, multiple choice questions (mcqs), easy to learn concepts and study notes of all class 12 biology chapters, online tests, value based questions (vbqs), sample papers and last year solved question papers

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus and Examination Structure

THEORY

I. Reproduction (Periods 35)

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

II. Genetics and Evolution (Periods 45)

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination– In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation– Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution– Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft; Hardy- Weinberg’s principle;Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

III Biology and Human Welfare (Periods 35)

Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

IV Biotechnology and Its Applications (Periods 30)

Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues– Biopiracy and patents.

V Ecology and environment (Periods 35)

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions–mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation;Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Practicals Syllabus and Examination structure (Total Periods = 60)

List of Experiments

  1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
  1. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  2. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
  3. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
  1. Study of plant population density by quadrate method.
  1. Study of plant population frequency by quadrate method.
  1. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  1. To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.

Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

  1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).
  1. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
  1. Identification of stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. testis and T.S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).
  2. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slides.
  1. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides.
  1. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
  1. Prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, widow’s peak, colour blindness.
  2. Exercise on controlled pollination – Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  1. Identification of common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  2. Two plants and two animals found in xerophytic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  3. Plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological

Latest CBSE News

  • CBSE Class 10, 12 Results 2019: After so many predictions, rumours about the CBSE class 10th and class 12th results, finally the date is out now and the dates are also confirmed by the CBSE officials. According to the CBSE officials, the result will be declared by after the May 1st week i.e. between May 8, 2019, and May 15, 2019. Download CBSE class 10 Physics electricity notes prepared by expert...
  • This year board has introduced the new passing criteria for CBSE class 10 students. As per the norms, the board has decided to change the passing criteria for the CBSE class 10 students. According to the latest updates by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) i.e. the board has decided to give relaxation to the students. Here is the good news for the CBSE class 10 students. All the...
  • As per the new rules and regulations of the High Court, all private schools are not bound to enhance their fee structure without the prior permission of the Fee Fixation Committee (FFC). Besides that directorate advised private schools to follow the prescribed curriculum. Directorate of School Education, Jammu has made certain changes regarding the buying of books, uniforms of private schools of...
  • There are some chapters in Social Science for class 10 which CBSE has decided to drop them. CBSE has taken this decision so keep in mind that these chapters are irrelevant and in future will not be included in exams. Therefore, CBSE has decided to drop five Social Science chapters from this academic session of class 10th syllabus including ‘Challenges to Democracy’ and ‘Political Struggles and...
  • As per the norms, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has been announced strict rules regarding the change of school for reasons like better education, etc. On 5th April 2019, CBSE has made a list of documents that parents, as well as students, will have to give for direct admissions in Class X and XII. The following are the documents required to take admissions in Class X and XII are...
  • As per the latest updates, the Delhi University has made certain changes in their curricular system. Earlier, Delhi University had announced the registration date was 15th April 2019. Now the news coming from the DU is Delhi University postponed the admission process for both under-graduation and post-graduation courses. Now the registration process is likely to begin on the first May 2019....
  • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is likely to declare the result by May third week for class 10th and 12th. CBSE is ready for further processes. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has been announced the Re-verification and Re-evaluation schedule on April 11, 2019. All those students who have doubts or not happy with the correction of papers can fill the Re-verification...