CBSE class 12 biology covers reproduction in organisms, sexual reproduction in flowering plants, human reproduction, reproductive health, principles of inheritance and variation, molecular basis of inheritance, evolution, human health and disease, strategies for enhancement in food production, microbes in human welfare, biotechnology principles and processes, biotechnology and its applications, organisms and populations, ecosystem, biodiversity and conservation, environmental issues, access study material for biology, students can free download in pdf, practice to get better marks in examinations. all study material has been prepared based on latest guidelines, term examination pattern and blueprint issued by cbse and ncert
click on tabs below for class 12 biology worksheets, assignments, syllabus, ncert cbse books, ncert solutions, hots, multiple choice questions (mcqs), easy to learn concepts and study notes of all class 12 biology chapters, online tests, value based questions (vbqs), sample papers and last year solved question papers
CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus and Examination Structure
I. Reproduction (Periods 35)
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
II. Genetics and Evolution (Periods 45)
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination– In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation– Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution– Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft; Hardy- Weinberg’s principle;Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
III Biology and Human Welfare (Periods 35)
Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
IV Biotechnology and Its Applications (Periods 30)
Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues– Biopiracy and patents.
V Ecology and environment (Periods 35)
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions–mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation;Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Practicals Syllabus and Examination structure (Total Periods = 60)
List of Experiments
- Study pollen germination on a slide.
- Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
- Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
- Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
- Study of plant population density by quadrate method.
- Study of plant population frequency by quadrate method.
- Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
- To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
- Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).
- Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
- Identification of stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. testis and T.S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).
- Meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slides.
- T.S. of blastula through permanent slides.
- Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
- Prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, widow’s peak, colour blindness.
- Exercise on controlled pollination – Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
- Identification of common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
- Two plants and two animals found in xerophytic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
- Plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological
Latest CBSE News
- CBSE has issued a circular to students and various schools to increase awareness amongst students regarding careful disposal of e-waste. CBSE has issued a letter from Ministry of Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY),Govt. of India regarding increasing awareness programme on Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste amongst students. The schools have been advised to tell...
- In today’s world, competition is very tough. Students have to go through a lot in order to complete their education with top ranking. As our educational system is developing, we are being provided with high level problems and questions to practice and sharp our minds. The process of preparing for an exam requires a rigorous amount of practice, concept-building, problem solving and error...
- Government has been working on revamping the school level education system for all CBSE affiliated schools in India. HRD ministry has recently asked for suggestions from teachers, students and parents on the syllabus contents. Thousands of respondents along with teachers submitted their responses on the MHRD website on their opinion about the syllabus for various classes and what all topics to...
- In continuation of the efforts of the government to standardize the education system across the country, government has decided to implement NCERT curriculum system in Tripura also. The education minister of Tripura announced that from next academic year which is starting from 1st April, NCERT (National Council for Educational Research and Training) will be applicable in all schools in Tripura....
- NCERT is a government organisation which has been set up to advise the central and state governments on various Matters relating to academics which are related to elementary and Senior school education level. The overall objective of setting up this department was to improve the education level in the entire country. The objective of this department was to prepare and publish text books as per...
- What is NTSE Exam ? National Talent Search Examination which is called NTSE in short is a national level examination which is conducted by NCERT (National Council of Education Research and Training). This is one of the most prestigious national level scholarship based exam conducted in India. This is also one of the oldest exam conducted at a national level in India. The first exam was conducted...
- NCERT is an organization which was formed by the Government of India in 1961. The organisation was formed by merging atleast seven government education institutions. The NCERT was formed to standardize the education system in India. The main objective was to publish high quality NCERT books which can be implemented in the entire country to ensure standard education system across the country....