CBSE Class XII Biology

CBSE class 12 biology NCERT Solutions, latest sample papers with solutions, projects, past year boards question papers solved, latest syllabus and other useful study material, free download in pdf study material for biology, practice to get better marks in examinations. all study material has been prepared based on latest guidelines, term examination pattern and blueprint issued by cbse and ncert

click on tabs below for class 12 biology worksheets, assignments, syllabus, ncert cbse books, ncert solutions, hots, multiple choice questions (mcqs), easy to learn concepts and study notes of all class 12 biology chapters, online tests, value based questions (vbqs), sample papers and last year solved question papers

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus and Examination Structure

THEORY

I. Reproduction (Periods 35)

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

II. Genetics and Evolution (Periods 45)

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination– In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation– Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution– Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft; Hardy- Weinberg’s principle;Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

III Biology and Human Welfare (Periods 35)

Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

IV Biotechnology and Its Applications (Periods 30)

Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues– Biopiracy and patents.

V Ecology and environment (Periods 35)

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions–mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation;Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Practicals Syllabus and Examination structure (Total Periods = 60)

List of Experiments

  1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
  1. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
  2. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.
  3. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
  1. Study of plant population density by quadrate method.
  1. Study of plant population frequency by quadrate method.
  1. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  1. To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.

Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

  1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).
  1. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
  1. Identification of stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. testis and T.S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).
  2. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slides.
  1. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides.
  1. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
  1. Prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, widow’s peak, colour blindness.
  2. Exercise on controlled pollination – Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
  1. Identification of common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  2. Two plants and two animals found in xerophytic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
  3. Plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological

Latest CBSE News

  • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is planning to conduct the board exams for the class 10th and 12th students in the upcoming February. The CBSE board is planning to release the timetable for the exams soon. Now, the mindset of every student is to score the good works in the examination. Not all the hard working students will get the top marks in the examination. The one who studies...
  • CBSE board exams are going to be conducted in the next few months, and students are trying their best to get the good marks in the examination. Even though students studying in CBSE schools put maximum effort, mathematics subject alone remain a nightmare for many CBSE students till now. To help their students in the proper way, school teachers and mathematics experts are giving good advice to the...
  • On Friday, Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB) has announced the board exam date sheet. According to the news, the exam for the matriculation and intermediate schools will be held next year. The board has also announced the date of the exams. According to the circular from the Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB), the matric exams will be held from 21/02/2019 to 28/02/2019, and the...
  • Is your child carrying a heavy school bag daily which causes pain in his shoulders and back ? See the allowed weight limits of school bag below
  • On the one hand, students enjoy a lot while solving the problems on the mathematics subject. On the other hand, some students cry out when they prepare for their exam. Getting a good mark in the mathematics exam is not that difficult but many students didn't recognize it. The biggest problems in mathematics exam which a student normally face during the exam are timing, getting wrong answers in...
  • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) board has released a recent notification for the students and parents in which they have declared that the Education Board is already following the regulations based on the RTI rules to charge the money from the candidates in order to get their Photocopies for the answer sheets from the CBSE board. Many media and reporters reported CBSE board has no...
  • With the latest technology and smartphones at the fingertips, students will get distracted easily these days. With the plenty of interesting things around, it is very hard for the students to focus on their studies. The lapse in concentration during the studies is something very similar to online shopping. We aim at a specific product, and with the suggestions of different products on the website...