NCERT Class 12 Geography Mineral and Energy Resorces

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India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure. Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of pre-palaezoic age (Refer: Chapter 2 of Class XI, Textbook: “Fundamentals of Physical Geography” and are mainly associated with metamorphic and igneous rocks of the peninsular India. The vast alluvial plain tract of north India is devoid of minerals of economic use. The mineral resources provide the country with the necessary base for industrial development. In this chapter, we shall discuss the availability of various types of mineral and energy resources in the country.

Types of Mineral Resources

On the basis of chemical and physical properties, minerals may be grouped under two main categories of metallics and non-metallics which may further be classified as follows : As, it is clear from the Fig. 7.1 metallic minerals are the sources of metals. Iron ore, copper, gold produce metal and are included in this category. Metallic minerals are further divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic minerals. Ferrous, as you know, refers to iron. All those minerals which have iron content are ferrous such as iron ore itself and those which do not have iron content are non-ferrous such as copper, bauxite, etc.

Non-metallic minerals are either organic in origin such as fossil fuels also known as mineral fuels which are derived from the buried animal and plant life such as coal and petroleum. Other type of non-metallic minerals are inorganic in origin such as mica, limestone and graphite, etc. Minerals have certain characteristics. These are unevenly distributed over space. There is inverse relationship in quality and quantity of minerals i.e. good quality minerals are less in quantity as compared to low quality minerals. The third main characteristic is that all minerals are exhaustible over time. These take long to develop geologically and they cannot be replenished immediately at the time of need. Thus, they have to be conserved and not misused as they do not have the second crop.

Distribution of Minerals in India

Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in the peninsular plateau region in the old crystalline rocks. Over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari. Petroleum reserves are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat and Mumbai High i.e. off-shore region in the Arabian Sea. New reserves have been located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins. Most of the major mineral resources occur to the east of a line linking Mangalore and Kanpur.

The North-Eastern Plateau Region

This belt covers Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Orissa Plateau, West Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh. Have you ever thought about the reason of major iron and steel industry being located in this region? It has variety of minerals viz. iron ore coal, manganese, bauxite, mica. Find out the specific region where these minerals are being extracted.

The South-Western Plateau Region This belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala. This belt is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite. It also contains high grade iron ore, manganese and limestone. This belt packs in coal deposits except Neyveli lignite.

This belt does not have as diversified mineral deposits as the north-eastern belt. Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium, bauxite clay. Goa has iron ore deposits.

The North-Western Region

This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with Dharwar system of rocks. Copper, zinc have been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble. Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also extensive. Dolomite and limestone provide raw materials for cement industry.



1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.

    (i) In which one of the following States are the major oil fields located?

        (a) Assam                           (c) Rajasthan

        (b) Bihar                             (d) Tamil Nadu

    (ii) At which one of the following places was the first atomic power station started?

        (a) Kalpakkam                    (c) Rana Pratap Sagar

        (b) Narora                           (d) Tarapur

    (iii) Which one of the following minerals is known as brown diamond?

         (a) Iron                             (c) Manganese

         (b) Lignite                          (d) Mica

    (iv) Which one of the following is non-renewable source of energy?

         (a) Hydel                           (c) Thermal

         (b) Solar                            (d) Wind power

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

    (i) Give an account of the distribution of mica in India.

    (ii) What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.

    (iii) Name non-ferrous metal. Discuss their spatial distribution.

    (vi) What are non-conventional sources of energy?

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words. 

    (i) Write a detailed note on the Petroleum resources of India.

    (ii) Write an essay on hydel power in India.


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