NCERT Class 12 Geography Data - Its Sources and Compilation

Scroll down to download pdf file

NCERT Class 12 Geography Data - Its Sources and Compilation. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online).

Data - Its Source and Compilation

You must have seen and used various forms of data. For example, at the end of almost every news bulletin on Television, the temperatures recorded on that day in major cities are displayed. Similarly, the books on the Geography of India  show data relating to the growth and distribution of population, and theproduction, distribution and trade of various crops, minerals and industrial products in tabular form. Have you ever thought what they mean? From where these data are obtained? How are they tabulated and processed to extract meaningful information from them ? In this chapter, we will deliberate on these aspects of the data and try to answer these many questions.

What is Data? 

The data are defined as numbers that represent measurements from the real world. Datum is a single measurement. We often read the news like 20 centimetres of continuous rain in Barmer or 35 centimetres of rain at a stretch in Banswara in 24 hours or information such as New Delhi – Mumbai distance via Kota – Vadodara is 1385 kilometres and via Itarsi - Manmad is 1542 kilometres bytrain. This numerical information is called data. It may be easily realised that there are large volume of data available around the world today. However, at times, it becomes difficult to derive logical conclusions from these data if they are in raw form. Hence, it is important to ensure that the measured information is  algorithmically derived and/or logically deduced and/or statistically calculatedfrom multiple data. Information is defined as either a meaningful answer to a queryor a meaningful stimulus that can cascade into further queries. 

Need of Data Maps are important tools in studying geography. Besides, the distribution and growth of phenomena are also explained through the data in tabular form. We know that an interelationship exists between many phenomena over the surface of the earth. These interactions are influenced by many variables which can be explained best in quantitative terms. Statistical analysis of those variables has become a necessity today. For example, to study cropping pattern of an area, it  is necessary to have statistical information about the cropped area, crop yieldand production, irrigated area, amount of rainfall and inputs like use of fertiliser, insecticides, pesticides, etc. Similarly, data related to the total population, density, number of migrants, occupation of people, their salaries, industries, means of transportation and communication is needed to study the growth of a city. Thus, data plays an important role in geographical analysis.

Presentation of the Data

You might have heard the story of a person who was travelling with his wife and a five-year old child. On his way, he had to cross a river. Firstly, he fathomed the  depth of the river at four points as 0.6, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.5 metres. He calculated theaverage depth as 0.95 metres. His child’s height was 1 metre. So, he led them to cross the river and his child drowned in the river. On the other bank, he sat pondering: “Lekha Jokha Thahe, to Bachha Dooba Kahe ?” (Why did the child drown when average depth was within the reach of each one ?). This is called statistical fallacy, which may deviate you from the real situation. So, it is very important to collect the data to know the facts and figures, but equally important is the presentation of data.

Today, the use of statistical methods in the analysis, presentation and in drawing conclusions plays a significant role in almost all disciplines, including geography, which use the data. It may, therefore, be inferred that the concentration of a phenomena, e.g. population, forest or network of transportation or communication not only vary over space and time but may also be conveniently explained using the data. In other words, you may say that there is a shift from qualitative description to quantitative analysis in explainingthe relationship among variables. Hence, analytical tools and techniques have become more important these days to make the study more logical and derive precise conclusion. Precise quantitative techniques are used right from the beginning of collecting and compiling data to its tabulation, organisation, ordering and analysis till the derivation of conclusions.

Sources of Data

The data are collected through the following ways. These are : 1. Primary Sources,and 2. Secondary Sources. The data which are collected for the first time by an individual or the groupof individuals, institution/organisations are called Primary sources of the data. On the other hand, data collected from any published or unpublished sources are called Secondary sources. Fig. 1.1 shows the different methods of data collection.


1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) A number or character which represents measurement is called

     (a) Digit  

     (b) Data

     (c) Number

     (d) Character

(ii) A single datum is a single measurement from the

      (a) Table

      (b) Frequency  

      (c) Real world  

      (d) Information

(iii) In a tally mark grouping by four and crossing fifth is called

      (a) Four and Cross Method

      (b) Tally Marking Method

      (c) Frequency plotting Method (d) Inclusive Method

(iv) An Ogive is a method in which

      (a) Simple frequency is measured

      (b) Cumulative frequency is measured

      (c) Simple frequency is plotted

      (d) Cumulative frequency is plotted

(v) If both ends of a group are taken in frequency grouping, it is called

      (a) Exclusive Method

      (b) Inclusive Method

      (c) Marking Method

      (d) Statistical Method

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

   (i) Differentiate between data and information.

   (ii) What do you mean by data processing?

   (iii) What is the advantage of foot note in a table?

   (iv) What do you mean by primary sources of data?

   (v) Enumerate five sources of secondary data.

3. Answer the following questions in about 125 words:

    (i) Discuss the national and international agencies where from secondary data may be collected.

    (ii) What is the importance of an index number?

Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Geography Data - Its Sources and Compilation


Click on the text For more study material for Geography please click here - Geography

Latest CBSE News

  • With the latest technology and smartphones at the fingertips, students will get distracted easily these days. With the plenty of interesting things around, it is very hard for the students to focus on their studies. The lapse in concentration during the studies is something very similar to online shopping. We aim at a specific product, and with the suggestions of different products on the website...
  • On the one hand, students enjoy a lot while solving the problems on the mathematics subject. On the other hand, some students cry out when they prepare for their exam. Getting a good mark in the mathematics exam is not that difficult but many students didn't recognize it. The biggest problems in mathematics exam which a student normally face during the exam are timing, getting wrong answers in...
  • Many CBSE students who are all preparing for their Class X exams do not prepare well for the English exams because they always try to focus on the mainstream subjects. When they are on the go for scoring more marks for the main subjects, their performance level and the marks got greatly reduced in English. English is a global language, so it is very important to learn that subject as it can help...
  • On Friday, Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB) has announced the board exam date sheet. According to the news, the exam for the matriculation and intermediate schools will be held next year. The board has also announced the date of the exams. According to the circular from the Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB), the matric exams will be held from 21/02/2019 to 28/02/2019, and the...
  • Every student's dream is to score the good marks in the final board examination as the future of the student will depend on the result of these exams. The Central Board of Secondary Education conducted Board Examinations are only a few months away from now. This period is high time for every student to start their preparation seriously so that they can score well in their final examinations. CBSE...
  • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is planning to conduct the board exams for the class 10th and 12th students in the upcoming February. The CBSE board is planning to release the timetable for the exams soon. Now, the mindset of every student is to score the good works in the examination. Not all the hard working students will get the top marks in the examination. The one who studies...
  • CBSE board exams are going to be conducted in the next few months, and students are trying their best to get the good marks in the examination. Even though students studying in CBSE schools put maximum effort, mathematics subject alone remain a nightmare for many CBSE students till now. To help their students in the proper way, school teachers and mathematics experts are giving good advice to the...