NCERT Class 12 Geography Field Surveys

Scroll down to download pdf file

NCERT Class 12 Geography Field Surveys. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online).

Field Survey

You have studied aspects of Physical Geography of the world as well as of India in Class XI. In the present class, besides the Practical Work in Geography you will also study various aspects of Human Geography. While studying these aspects, you may have observed that issues addressed pertain to global or national level. In other words, the given information helps us to understand the issues at macro level. You may also have observed that the forms, events and processes in your surroundings are similar to what you have studied at macro level.

Have you ever thought how would you study some of the aspects at local level? You know that the regional level information is used to analyse different physical and human parameters of a large area. Similarly, information has to be gathered at the local level by conducting primary surveys for generating information. The primary surveys are also called field surveys. They are an essential component of geographic enquiry. It is a basic procedure to understand  the earth as a home of humankind and are carried out through observation,sketching, measurement, interviews, etc. In the present chapter, we will discuss the procedure involved in carrying out the field surveys.

Why is Field Survey Required ?

Like many other sciences, geography is also a field science. Thus, a geographical enquiry always needed to be supplemented through well –planned field surveys. These surveys enhance our understanding about patterns of spatial distributions, their associations and relationships at the local level. Further, the field surveys facilitate the collection of local level information that is not available through secondary sources. Thus, the field surveys are carried out to gather required information so as the problem under investigation is studied in depth as per the predefined objectives. Such studies also enable the investigator to comprehend the situation and processes in totality and at the place of their occurrence. This is possible through ‘Observation’, which is a useful method of gathering information and then to derive inferences.

 

Field Survey Procedure

The field survey is initiated with well-defined procedure. It is performed in the following functionally inter – related stages :

1. Defining the Problem

The problem to be studied should be defined precisely. This can be achieved by way of statements indicating the nature of the problem. This should also be reflected in the title and sub-title of the topic of the survey.

2. Objectives

A further specification of the survey is done by listing the objectives. Objectives provide outline of the survey and in accordance to these, suitable tools of acquisition of data and methods of analysis will be chosen.

3. Scope

Like clearly defined objectives, scope of survey needs to be delimited in terms of geographical area to be covered, time framework of enquiry and if required themes of studies to be covered. This multi-dimensional delimitation of the study is essential in relation to fulfilment of the predefined objectives and limitations of analysis, inferences and their applicability.

4. Tools and Techniques

Field survey is basically conducted to collect information about the chosen problem for which varied types of tools are required. These include secondary information including maps and other data, field observation, data generated by interviewing people through questionnaires.

(i) Recorded and Published Data

These data provide base information about the problem. These are collected and published by different government agencies, organisations and other agencies. This information alongwith cadastral and topographical maps, provides basis to prepare the framework of survey. Listing of households, persons, landholdings in the survey area can be done using the official records or electoral rolls available with the village panchayat or the revenue officials. Similarly, essential physical features like relief, drainage, vegetation, land use and cultural features like settlements, transport and communication lines, irrigation infrastructure, etc. can be traced out from the topographical maps.

The field boundaries of land parcels can be marked out from cadastral maps available with land revenue officials. The field survey is conducted either for the entire ‘population’ or for the‘samples’. These basic informations and maps are required to select the units of observation. The large-scale maps of the survey area also help the investigator to  orient and locate him/her on the ground. This initial orientation helps the investigator to insert additional features in the map appropriately.


Excercises

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below :

(i) Which one of the following helps most in planning for a field survey ?

     (a) Personal Interviews

     (b) Secondary Information

     (c) Measurements

     (d) Experimentation

(ii) Which one of the following is taken up at the conclusion of a field survey ?

     (a) Data entry and Tabulation

     (b) Report Writing

     (c) Computation of Indices

     (d) None of the above

(iii) What is most important at the initial stages of field survey ?

     (a) Outlining the Objectives

     (b) Collection of Secondary Information

     (c) Defining the spatial and thematic coverages

     (d) Sample Design

(iv) What level of information is acquired during a field survey ?

     (a) Macro level information

     (b) Maso level information

     (c) Micro level information

     (d) All of the above levels of information

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words :

    (i) Why is a field survey required ?

    (ii) List the tools and techniques used during a field survey.

    (iii) What type of coverages need to defined before undertaking a field survey?

    (iv) Describe survey design in brief.

     (v)  Why is the well-structured questionnaire important for a field survey ?

3. Design a field survey on any one of the following problems :

    (a) Environmental Pollution

    (b) Soil Degradation

    (c) Floods

    (d) Energy Issues

    (e) Land Use Change Detection


Please refer to attached file for  NCERT Class 12 Geography Field Surveys

Tags: 


Click on the text For more study material for Geography please click here - Geography

Latest CBSE News

  • How many times have we heard our parents lecture us on the importance of having a set schedule? How many times have they told us about fixing a timetable and setting a routine to complete all our studies on time? You might have lost count I'm sure. But let's stop for a minute and think. Why are they constantly nagging us about these things? There surely must be a reason behind it. And yes there...
  • Concentration while studying is as important. Without concentration no matter how long you have been sitting for nothing could be learnt. Like many things concentration is not something you can achieve in a night or so you have to work on it for a while. Here are some tips from some studios that may help you to improve concentration and score good. Find your motivation: many students go on...
  • Mr. TS Grewal can rightly be called the saviour for all students of commerce today. He was an eminent personality when it comes to subjects of Commerce and Management. He was not just an educationist but also a humanist who greatly inspired all those who were in touch with him. He had certain values, principles and the way of life he followed serves as a guiding light for many of us today. He...
  • The Board examinations for Class 10th students studying the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will begin from the 7th of March 2019 for all core or main subjects. The exams for vocational subjects have already begun from the 21st February 2019. There are certain new mandatory rules that need to be kept in mind by the students before they appear for the examinations. These rules are...
  • Students are constantly told about how they should finish their syllabus in time and then get down to practicing last years question papers for each subject. But have you ever thought why it is so? There is quite a simple logic behind practicing these papers, 'the past will help you prepare better for the future.' Most schools and boards always refer to previous years question papers when setting...
  • Many a times students face the most important hurdle in their lives, how to memorize faster? More often than not, you may feel that you have finished reading and revising a certain chapter but when you look back at it, it seems like nothing ever went in to your head. You are unable to produce the answers of even simple questions. This does not mean that there is a problem with you. It simply...
  • All the CBSE students who are appearing for their board exams this year can breathe a sigh of relief. The Central Board of Secondary Education has decided to increase the number of questions given to the students with more internal choices. So now you don't have to worry about whether or not you will be able to solve all the questions. More choices within each question means that you can focus on...