NCERT Class 12 Geography Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be downloaded and used as textbooks or for reference. Refer to other chapters and books at other links (NCERT now providing you soft copies of all textbooks of all subjects from class first to twelfth online).
PLANNING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN CONTEXT
The word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a part of everyday usage. You must have used it with reference to preparation for your examination or visit to a hill station. It involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal. Though it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has been used with reference to the process of economic development.
It is, thus different from the traditional hit-and-miss methods by which reforms and reconstruction are often undertaken. Generally, there are two approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning and regional planning. The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.There is no uniform economic development over space in any country. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind. This uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is termed as regional planning.
Target Area Planning
The planning process has to take special care of those areas which have remained economically backward. As you know, the economic development of a region depends upon its resource base. But sometimes resource-rich region also remain backward. The economic development also requires technology as well as investment besides the resource. With the planning experience of about one and half decades, it was realised that regional imbalances in economic development were getting accentuated.
In order to arrest the accentuation of regional and social disparties, the Planning Commission introduced the ‘target area’ and target group approaches to planning. Some of the examples of programmes directed towards the development of target areas are Command Area Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Development Programme, Desert Development Programme, Hill Area Development Programme. The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) and Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA) which are the examples of target group programme. In the 8th Five year Plan special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Hill Area Development Programme Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttaranchal), Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjiling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu. The National Committee on the Development of Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas.
The detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions. These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry. Drought Prone Area Programme
This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
National Committee on Development of Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of this programme. It has been observed that this programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance. Since growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the droughtprone areas.
The other strategies of development of these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level. The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, and human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone areas.
Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought. Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas. Broadly, the droughtprone area in India spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karantka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and north-Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions.
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Regional planning relates to :
(a) Development of various sectors of economy.
(b) Area specific approach of development.
(c) Area differences in transportation network.
(d) Development of rural areas.
(ii) ITDP refers to which one of the following?
(a) Integrated Tourism Development Programme
(b) Integrated Travel Development Programme
(c) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
(d) Integrated Transport Development Programme
(iii) Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
(a) Agricultural development
(c) Transport development
(d) Colonisation of land
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?
(ii) Define the concept of sustainable development.
(iii) What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Write short notes on drought-prone area programme and agro-climatic planning. How do these programmes help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?
(ii) Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 Geography Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context