CBSE Class 12 Geography India People And Economy. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.
GIST OF THE LESSON:
POPULATION: DISTRIBUTION, DENSITY, GROWTHAND COMPOSITION
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
Population is distributed unevenly.
Uttar Pradesh has the highest population followed byMaharashtra, Bihar ,West Bengal ,Andhra
Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh,Bihar,West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh ,Rajasthan,
Karnataka, Gujrat account for 76% of population.
Arunachal Pradesh takes 0.11% & Uttarakhand takes 0.83%of total population of India.
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
PHYSICAL FACTORS: climate, water, terrain, transport ,
SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS: Settled Agriculture. Agri. develop. pattern of human
settlements, dev. Of transport, industries, urbanization
HISTORICAL FACTORS: development of cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai by
DENSITY OF POPULATION
Number of persons per unit area.
The density of population (2011) is 382 person / sq km.
Lowest population density in Arunachal Pradesh: 17 person/ per sq km.
Highest population density in Bihar followed byWest Bengal, Kerala & Uttar Pradesh
Himalayan states and North East have low density whereas Ganga plain has highest density
and other states have moderate population
Physiological density= Total Population / Net Cultivated Area
Agricultural density = Total Agriculture Population / Net Cultivated Area
GROWTH OF POPULATION
Change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. It is expressed
Two components: 1. Natural 2. Actual
Natural growth is analyzed by crude birth rate and crude death rate
Actual growth is calculated with the immigration –outmigration. The annual growth is 1.7%census
PHASES OF POPULATION GROWTH IN INDIA
Following four phases are recognized in demographic history of India:-
STAGE I: 1901 -1921 stagnant growth, slow growth rate, BR & DR were high, poor medical
facilities, lowliteracy rate, inefficient distribution of food and basic facilities.Demographic divide;
STAGE II: 1921-51: steady growth, improvement in health and sanitation lowmortality rate. Better
transport facilities, high birth rate and decline death rate. The influence of world war and Economic
depression influenced, Mortality Induced Growth
STAGEIII: 1951-81: Population explosion, rapid fall inmortality rate, high fertility rate, introduction
of five year plans, improvement of living condition, increasedmigration. Fertility InducedGrowth
STAGE IV: 1981 onwards: growth rate declined, crude birth rate declined due to increasemarriage
age, improved quality of life& education.
FEATURES OFADOLESCENTS POPULATION: High potential, quite vulnerable.
CHALLENGES FACED BY SOCIETYABOUTADOLESCENTS
Lower age at marriage
Low intake of nutrients
High rate of maternal mortality of adolescent mothers,
High rate of HIVAIDS
Physical and mental disability
Drug abuse alcoholism
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT TO CHANNELIZE THE ADULTS
National youth policy
Encourage the youth for constructive development of the society
Improve patriotism and responsible citizens
Giving importance for youth health, sports and recreation
Innovation in the field of science
1. Age and sex,
2 place of residence
3. Ethnic characteristics
7. Marital status
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
More than 68% population lives in villages.
India has 638588 villages according to 2011 census.
The state ofHimachal Pradesh, Bihar and Sikkimhave very high percentage of rural population
Goa, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have low rural population
Union Territories have low rural population except Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The size of villages varies from one region to other region.
In the North- East India and Rajasthan, it is less than 200 persons while it is more than 17,000
persons in Kerala
It is equal to 31.16 % it is quite low.
It is increased due to economic development, improvement in health, hygienic conditions
According to Grierson there are 179 languages 544 dialects, there are about 22 scheduled
Hindi speakers are 40.42% the smallest language is Kashmiri 0.01%.
Austric(Nishada) – 1.38 % – Mon-khemar – Meghalaya Nicobar,West Bengal, Jharkhand,
Odisha, Assam, Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra
Dravidian (20%) – Dravida - Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala,Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha,
Sino-Tibetan(0.85%) – Tibeto- Myanamari – Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim,
Aruncahal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura.
Indo-European-NorthWestern, Central & North India (73%)- IndoAryan
Hindus are distributed in all states except in the districts of state along Indo-Bangladesh border,
Jammu & Kashmir, North- East states
Muslims are concentrated in Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi,
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