CBSE Class 12 Geography India People And Economy

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CBSE Class 12 Geography India People And Economy. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.

GIST OF THE LESSON:

POPULATION: DISTRIBUTION, DENSITY, GROWTHAND COMPOSITION

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION

 Population is distributed unevenly.

 Uttar Pradesh has the highest population followed byMaharashtra, Bihar ,West Bengal ,Andhra

Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh

 Uttar Pradesh,Bihar,West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh ,Rajasthan,

Karnataka, Gujrat account for 76% of population.

 Arunachal Pradesh takes 0.11% & Uttarakhand takes 0.83%of total population of India.

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION

 PHYSICAL FACTORS: climate, water, terrain, transport ,

 SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS: Settled Agriculture. Agri. develop. pattern of human

settlements, dev. Of transport, industries, urbanization

 HISTORICAL FACTORS: development of cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai by

British

DENSITY OF POPULATION

 Number of persons per unit area.

 The density of population (2011) is 382 person / sq km.

 Lowest population density in Arunachal Pradesh: 17 person/ per sq km.

Highest population density in Bihar followed byWest Bengal, Kerala & Uttar Pradesh

 Himalayan states and North East have low density whereas Ganga plain has highest density

and other states have moderate population

 Physiological density= Total Population / Net Cultivated Area

 Agricultural density = Total Agriculture Population / Net Cultivated Area

GROWTH OF POPULATION

Change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. It is expressed

in percentage.

Two components: 1. Natural 2. Actual

Natural growth is analyzed by crude birth rate and crude death rate

Actual growth is calculated with the immigration –outmigration. The annual growth is 1.7%census

(2001-11)

 

PHASES OF POPULATION GROWTH IN INDIA

Following four phases are recognized in demographic history of India:-

STAGE I: 1901 -1921 stagnant growth, slow growth rate, BR & DR were high, poor medical

facilities, lowliteracy rate, inefficient distribution of food and basic facilities.Demographic divide;

STAGE II: 1921-51: steady growth, improvement in health and sanitation lowmortality rate. Better

transport facilities, high birth rate and decline death rate. The influence of world war and Economic

depression influenced, Mortality Induced Growth

STAGEIII: 1951-81: Population explosion, rapid fall inmortality rate, high fertility rate, introduction

of five year plans, improvement of living condition, increasedmigration. Fertility InducedGrowth

STAGE IV: 1981 onwards: growth rate declined, crude birth rate declined due to increasemarriage

age, improved quality of life& education.

FEATURES OFADOLESCENTS POPULATION: High potential, quite vulnerable.

CHALLENGES FACED BY SOCIETYABOUTADOLESCENTS

 Lower age at marriage

 Illiteracy

 Female illiteracy

 School dropouts

 Low intake of nutrients

 High rate of maternal mortality of adolescent mothers,

 High rate of HIVAIDS

 Physical and mental disability

 Drug abuse alcoholism

 Juvenile delinquency

 Crime

STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT TO CHANNELIZE THE ADULTS

 National youth policy

 Encourage the youth for constructive development of the society

 Improve patriotism and responsible citizens

 Youth empowerment

 Giving importance for youth health, sports and recreation

 Innovation in the field of science

POPULATION COMPOSITION

1. Age and sex,

2 place of residence

3. Ethnic characteristics

 

4. Tribes

5. Language

6. Religion

7. Marital status

8. Literacy

9. Education

10. Occupation

RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION

 More than 68% population lives in villages.

 India has 638588 villages according to 2011 census.

 The state ofHimachal Pradesh, Bihar and Sikkimhave very high percentage of rural population

 Goa, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have low rural population

 Union Territories have low rural population except Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

 The size of villages varies from one region to other region.

 In the North- East India and Rajasthan, it is less than 200 persons while it is more than 17,000

persons in Kerala

URBAN POPULATION

It is equal to 31.16 % it is quite low.

 It is increased due to economic development, improvement in health, hygienic conditions

LINGUISTIC COMPOSITION

 According to Grierson there are 179 languages 544 dialects, there are about 22 scheduled

languages

 Hindi speakers are 40.42% the smallest language is Kashmiri 0.01%.

LANGUAGE FAMILIES

 Austric(Nishada) – 1.38 % – Mon-khemar – Meghalaya Nicobar,West Bengal, Jharkhand,

Odisha, Assam, Madhya Pradesh , Maharashtra

 Dravidian (20%) – Dravida - Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala,Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha,

Madhya Pradesh,

 Sino-Tibetan(0.85%) – Tibeto- Myanamari – Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim,

Aruncahal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura.

 Indo-European-NorthWestern, Central & North India (73%)- IndoAryan

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION

Hindus are distributed in all states except in the districts of state along Indo-Bangladesh border,

Jammu & Kashmir, North- East states

 Muslims are concentrated in Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi,

Lakshadweep

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