CBSE Class 12 Geography Geographical Perspective On Selected Issues And Problems

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Geographical Perspective On Selected Issues And Problems. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.


Pollution: Harmful change for animals and plants in the environment is called pollution. Different

components of environment have a definite composition. When some other element is added to

these components their basic composition is altered. This change is called pollution.

ENVIRONMENT: The external conditions surrounding an organisms or a community are its

environment. The environment has two components- one is natural (physical) environment and the

other is human environment.


AIR POLLUTION:Addition of any undesired smell, solid, gas or dust to air and any unnecessary

interference in living conditions due to this is called Air pollution.

Harmful effects of air pollution

 Effect on weather and climate: Chemical pollution of air is one of the causes of depletion of

ozone in the atmosphere. The ozone layer saves us from the harmful ultra- violet rays of the

sun. Higher amount of carbon dioxide and some other gases leads to a rise in temperature also.

This has created the danger of melting of ice sheets and glaciers in polar and mountainous


 Effect on the health of people: Air pollution can lead to several ailments affecting lungs,

skin, eyes and throat. High levels of air pollution, especially when poisonous gases are present

in the atmosphere, can kill thousands of people. About 2,500 people died in Bhopal city in

1984 due to mixing of poisonous gas MIC in the air thousands became handicapped for life.

 Effects on animals and plants:Air pollutants have damaging effects on the leaves and trunks

of the trees and plants by retarding their growth.

 Effects on structures like buildings: Theair pollutants like sulphur dioxide, smoke, sand and

dust particles cause damage to various materials. Buildings turn black due to air pollution.

Acid rain creates small hollows in the marble slabs. The colour and shine of world famous Taj

Mahal is badly affected by air pollution.

Control of air pollution

 Use of lead- free petrol

 Complete checkon burning of fossil fuels

 Use of more fuel- efficient engines

 use of filters in smoke stacks

 Locating factories away from dense settlements

 Use of pollution-free energy resources

 High smoke stacks

 Restricting use of harmful chemicals

WATER POLLUTION: Such changes in the quality of water due to human or natural activities

that render water un-suitable for human consumption or for other organisms, agriculture, fisheries

and entertainment.


 Chemicals used in agriculture

 Detergents

 urban waste

 Religious and cultural gatherings along river banks


 Inadequate sewage systems and toilets

 half-burnt and un-burnt dead bodies

 Natural factor

 Drilling in sea for petroleum

 Nuclear waste

Quality Criteria for fresh water: The Central Pollution Control Board of India has divided water

into five groups:

I. The first group of water can be consumed without purification, just by removing germs.

II. Water of the second group is considered safe for bathing.

III. Water of this category can be consumed after purifying it through methods and making it


IV. The fourth group of water is suitable for fisheries. It is suitable for wildlife also.

V. The fifth group of water can be used for irrigation, industrial air conditioning and controlled

disposal of waste.

On the basis of above criteria, the water of most Indian rivers belongs to the (iii), (iv) and (v)

groups.Clean drinkablewater is becoming rare in Indian rivers.According to the some studies

“seventy per cent of total available water in India has been polluted”.

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