CBSE Class 12 Geography Concept Of Human Development. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.
GIST OF THE LESSON:
“Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices, increasing their
opportunities for education health care income and empowerment and covering the full range of
human choices from a sound physical environment to economic social and political freedom”.
HUMANDEVELOPMENTREPORT: Progressive democratization and increasing empowerment
of people are seen as the minimum conditions for human development.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
India ranked 130 among 188 countries according to 2015 UNDP report
HDI value is 0.609
Fall in medium group among the nations
Low score is due to
1. Historical Factors
Colonization, imperialism, neo imperialism,
2. Socio Cultural Factors
Human rights violation, social discrimination, crimes, terrorism, war
3. Political Factors
Nature of state, form of government, level of empowerment,
IDICATORS OF ECONOMIC ATTAINMENTS
Access to all resources by all the people
Prevalence of poverty , deprivation, malnutrition various types of prejudices
Large scale regional disparities
Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Gujrat, Delhi have high per capita income
Low per capita income is found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Assam,
Jammu & Kashmir
INDICATORS OF HEALTHY LIFE
Long life without ailment is called longevity
Availability of pre, post health care facilities decrease the death rate
Old age health care, adequate nutrition and safety of individual are important measures for
Death rate decreased from 25.1 / 1000 to 8.1 /1000
CHAPTER - 3
CONCEPT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
IMR decreased from 148 to 70
Life expectancy increased from 37.1 years to 65.3 years
Decreased birth rate from 40.8 to 26.1
Decline in sex ratio in rural areas is alarming
INDICATORS OF SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT
Access to knowledge about society and environment
Literacy rate is the indicator of social development
Literacy rate increased to65.4%
Literacy rate is Higher than the national average in many states
Kerala has highest and Bihar has lowest literacy
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN INDIA
Kerala with 0.638 placed on the top
Orissa with 0.404 placed at the bottom
Due to highest sex ratio and literacy Kerala place on the top
Due low sex ratio, per-capita income, and low literacy Orissa kept at the bottom
REASONS FOR LOW HDI
Low Literacy Rate
Low Economic Development
POPULATION ENVIORNMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
Social inequalities, discriminations deprivations displacement of people, abuse of human rights
cause low HDI
Methods to increase the HDI
i) Sustainable development
ii) Government Expenditure on public health and education
iii) Increase social and political freedom
One Marks Questions
Q1. Which state of India has highest HDI?
Q2. Which state of India has the lowest literacy rate?
Q3. Name the state of India that has the highest poverty incidence ratio.
Ans. Odissa and Bihar.
Three Marks Questions
Q1. Explain various indicators of human development.
Ans. United Nation’s Development Programs has suggested the following indicators of human
3. Access to resources
Q2. Explain the reasons for low human development index in few states of India.
Ans. Reasons –
1. Low rate of literacy in the sates like Bihar, M.P and Orissa.
2. Low economic development in the states like Orissa, Assam and Bihar etc.
3. Lack of effective implementations of govt. policies in these states.
Five Marks Questions
Q1. What is Human Development? Explain the indicators of Human Development in India.
Ans. Human development- it is the enhancement in the people’s choice and improvement in their
lives. The concept of human development was introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq in 1990.
Key Areas in Human Level Indicators
1. Access to resources Purchasing power (in $)
2. Health Life expectancy at birth
3. Education Adult literacy rate & gross Enrolment ratio.
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