CBSE Class 12 Geography Concept Of Human Development

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Concept Of Human Development. Students can download these worksheets and practice them. This will help them to get better marks in examinations. Also refer to other worksheets for the same chapter and other subjects too. Use them for better understanding of the subjects.




“Human development is a process of enlarging the range of people’s choices, increasing their

opportunities for education health care income and empowerment and covering the full range of

human choices from a sound physical environment to economic social and political freedom”.

HUMANDEVELOPMENTREPORT: Progressive democratization and increasing empowerment

of people are seen as the minimum conditions for human development.


 India ranked 130 among 188 countries according to 2015 UNDP report

 HDI value is 0.609

 Fall in medium group among the nations

 Low score is due to

1. Historical Factors

Colonization, imperialism, neo imperialism,

2. Socio Cultural Factors

Human rights violation, social discrimination, crimes, terrorism, war

3. Political Factors

Nature of state, form of government, level of empowerment,


 Access to all resources by all the people

 Prevalence of poverty , deprivation, malnutrition various types of prejudices

 Large scale regional disparities

 Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Gujrat, Delhi have high per capita income

 Low per capita income is found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Assam,

Jammu & Kashmir


 Long life without ailment is called longevity

 Availability of pre, post health care facilities decrease the death rate

 Old age health care, adequate nutrition and safety of individual are important measures for


 Death rate decreased from 25.1 / 1000 to 8.1 /1000







 IMR decreased from 148 to 70

 Life expectancy increased from 37.1 years to 65.3 years

 Decreased birth rate from 40.8 to 26.1

 Decline in sex ratio in rural areas is alarming


 Access to knowledge about society and environment

 Literacy rate is the indicator of social development

 Literacy rate increased to65.4%

 Literacy rate is Higher than the national average in many states

 Kerala has highest and Bihar has lowest literacy


 Kerala with 0.638 placed on the top

 Orissa with 0.404 placed at the bottom

 Due to highest sex ratio and literacy Kerala place on the top

 Due low sex ratio, per-capita income, and low literacy Orissa kept at the bottom


 Low Literacy Rate

 Low Economic Development

 Regional Disparities


 Social inequalities, discriminations deprivations displacement of people, abuse of human rights

cause low HDI

 Methods to increase the HDI

i) Sustainable development

ii) Government Expenditure on public health and education

iii) Increase social and political freedom

One Marks Questions

Q1. Which state of India has highest HDI?

Ans. Kerala.

Q2. Which state of India has the lowest literacy rate?

Ans. Bihar.




Q3. Name the state of India that has the highest poverty incidence ratio.

Ans. Odissa and Bihar.

Three Marks Questions

Q1. Explain various indicators of human development.

Ans. United Nation’s Development Programs has suggested the following indicators of human


1. Health

2. Education

3. Access to resources

Q2. Explain the reasons for low human development index in few states of India.

Ans. Reasons –

1. Low rate of literacy in the sates like Bihar, M.P and Orissa.

2. Low economic development in the states like Orissa, Assam and Bihar etc.

3. Lack of effective implementations of govt. policies in these states.

Five Marks Questions

Q1. What is Human Development? Explain the indicators of Human Development in India.

Ans. Human development- it is the enhancement in the people’s choice and improvement in their

lives. The concept of human development was introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq in 1990.

Key Areas in Human Level Indicators

1. Access to resources Purchasing power (in $)

2. Health Life expectancy at birth

3. Education Adult literacy rate & gross Enrolment ratio.


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