CBSE, Class XI Geography

CBSE class 11 geography covers weather instruments, maps and charts, introduction of remote sensing, introduction to aerial photographs, topographical maps, latitudes, longitudes and time, map projections, map scale, introduction to maps, india location, natural hazards and disasters, structure and physiography, soils, natural vegetation, climate, drainage system, composition and structure of atmosphere, movements of ocean water, water oceans, landforms and their evolution, world climate and climate change, water in the atmosphere, atmospheric circulation and weather system, solar radiation, heat balance and temperature, geomorphic processes, life on the earth, biodiversity and conservation, geography as a discipline, the origin and evolution of the earth, interior of the earth, distribution of oceans and continents, minerals and rocks, introduction to disaster management, natural hazards causes, distribution pattern, consequences and mitigation measures

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CBSE Class 11 Geography Syllabus and Examination Structure


Topic or Chapter


Part A

Fundamentals of Physical Geography



Geography as a discipline



The Earth









Water (Oceans) - OTBA



Life on the Earth



Map and Diagram


Part B

India - Physical Environment









Climate, vegetation and soil



Natural hazards and Disasters



Map and Diagram 


Part C

Practical Work



Fundamentals of Maps



Topographic and Weather Maps



Practical Record Book and Viva

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline

  • Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes.
  • Branches of Geography; Physical Geography and Human Geography.
  • Scope and Career Options

Unit-2: The Earth

  • Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth.
  • Wegener's continental drift theory and plate tectonics.
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.

Unit-3: Landforms

  • Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics.
  • Landforms and their evolution.
  • Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.

Unit 4: Climate

  • Atmosphere- composition and structure; elements of weather and climate.
  • Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
  • Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
  • Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
  • World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), Global warming and climatic changes.
  • Climate and Global Concerns.

Unit 5: Hydrosphere

  • Basics of Oceanography
  • Oceans - distribution of temperature and salinity.
  • Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
  • Ocean resources and pollution.

Unit 6: Biosphere

  • Biosphere - importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.

Map work on identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.

Part - B: India - Physical Environment

Unit-7: Introduction

  • Location, space relations, India's place in the world.

Unit-8: Physiography 

  • Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions.
  • Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.

Unit-9: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Weather and climate - spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen).
  • Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves.
  • Soils - major types (ICAR's classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit-10: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management

  • Floods, Cloudbursts
  • Droughts: types and impact
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones: features and impact
  • Landslides

Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.

Part - C: Practical Work

Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps

  • Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographical data matrix; Point, line, area data.
  • Maps - types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
  • Map projection - Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator's projection. (only two projections)

Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps

  • Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
  • Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features.
  • Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital).
  • Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.


Latest CBSE News

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