Maths Course Structure  Class IX
UNITS  MARKS  
I  NUMBER SYSTEMS  06 
II  ALGEBRA  20 
III  COORDINATE GEOMETRY  06 
IV  GEOMETRY  22 
V  MENSURATION  14 
VI  STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY  12 
 TOTAL  80 
 UNIT I : NUMBER SYSTEMS  (20) Periods 
 1. REAL NUMBERS 

 Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Representation of terminating / nonterminating recurring decimals, on the number line through successive magnification. Rational numbers as recurring/terminating decimals. 

 Examples of nonrecurring / non terminating decimals such as v2, v3, v5 etc. Existence of nonrational numbers (irrational numbers) such as v2, v3 and their representation on the number line. 

 Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line and conversely, every point on the number line represents a unique real number. 

 Existence of vx for a given positive real number x (visual proof to be emphasized). 

 Definition of nth root of a real number. 

 Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.) 

 Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type (& their combinations)where x and y are natural number and a, b are integers. 




 UNIT II : ALGEBRA 

 1. POLYNOMIALS  (25) Periods 
 Definition of a polynomial in one variable, its coefficients, with examples and counter examples, its terms, zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic, cubic polynomials; monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros/roots of a polynomial / equation. State and motivate the Remainder Theorem with examples and analogy to integers. Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem. Factorization 

 of ax^{2} + bx + c, a^{1} 0 where a, b, c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem. 

 Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Further identities of the type (x + y + z)^{2} = x^{2} + y^{2} + z^{2} + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx, (x y)^{3} = x^{3} y^{3} 3xy (x y). 

 x^{3} + y^{3} + z^{3}  3xyz = (x + y + z) (x^{2} + y^{2} + z^{2}xy  yz  zx) and their use in factorization of. polymonials. Simple 

 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES  (12) Periods 
 Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables. Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they seem to lie on a line. Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously. 

 UNIT III : COORDINATE GEOMETRY 

 1.COORDINATE GEOMETRY  (9) Periods 
 The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate 

 UNIT IV : GEOMETRY 

 1. INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID'S GEOMETRY  (6) Periods 
 History  Euclid and geometry in India. Euclid's method of formalizing observed phenomenon into 

 1. Given two distinct points, there exists one and only one line through them. 

 2. (Prove) two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common. 

 2. LINES AND ANGLES  (10) Periods 
 1. (Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180^{o} and the converse. 

 2. (Prove) If two lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are equal. 

 3. (Motivate) Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines. 

 4. (Motivate) Lines, which are parallel to a given line, are parallel. 

 5. (Prove) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180^{o}. 

 6. (Motivate) If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interiors opposite angles. 

 3. TRIANGLES  (20) Periods 
 1. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence). 

 2. (Prove) Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence). 

 3. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruene). 

 4. (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle. 

 5. (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal. 

 6. (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal. 

 7. (Motivate) Triangle inequalities and relation between 'angle and facing side' inequalities in triangles. 

 4. QUADRILATERALS  (10) Periods 
 1. (Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles. 

 2. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely. 

 3. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely. 

 4. (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal. 

 5. (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely. 

 6. (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and (motivate) its converse. 

 5. AREA 

 Review concept of area, recall area of a rectangle. 

 1. (Prove) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels have the same area. 

 2. (Motivate) Triangles on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area and its converse. 

 6. CIRCLES  (15) Periods 
 Through examples, arrive at definitions of circle related concepts, radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, subtended angle. 

 1. (Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse. 

 2. (Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord. 

 3. (Motivate) There is one and only one circle passing through three given noncollinear points. 

 4. (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center(s) and conversely. 

 5. (Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. 

 6. (Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. 

 7. (Motivate) If a line segment joining two points subtendes equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle. 

 8. (Motivate) The sum of the either pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180o and its converse 

 7. CONSTRUCTIONS  (10) Periods 
 1. Construction of bisectors of line segments & angles, 60^{o}, 90^{o}, 45^{o} angles etc., equilateral triangles. 

 2. Construction of a trangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle. 

 3. Construction of a triangle of given perimeter and base angles. 

 UNIT V :MENSURATION 

 1.AREAS  (4) Periods 
 Area of a triangle using Heros formula(without proof) and its application in finding the area of a quadrilateral 

 2.SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES  (10) Periods 
 Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres)including hemispheres) and right circular and right circular cylinders/cones. 

 UNIT VI : STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 

 1.STATISTICS  (13) Periods 
 Introduction to statistics: Collection of data, Presentation of data tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms(with varying base lengths), frequency polygons, 

 2.PROBABILITY  (12) Periods 
 History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability. Focus is on empirical probability.(A large amount of time to be developed to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiment to be drawn from real  life situations, and from example used in the chapter on statistics). 




INTERNAL ASSESSMENT  20 MARKS 
Evaluation of activities  10 Marks 
Project Work  05 Marks 
Continuous Evaluation  05 Marks 