NCERT Solutions for Class 7 for Social Science History for Chapter 4 The Mughal Empire
1. Match the following
Mansab - Marwar
Mongol - governor
Sisodiya Rajput - Uzbeg
Rathor Rajput - Mewar
Nur Jahan - Jahangir
Subadar – rank
Mansab – rank
Mongol - Uzbeg
Sisodiya Rajput – Mewar
Rathor Rajput – Marwar
Nur Jahan - Jahangir
Subadar – governor
2. Fill in the blanks -
(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was Kabul.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his cavalrymen.
(d) Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of sulh-i kul so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
3. What were the central provinces under the control of the Mughals?
The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were Delhi, Sind, Kabul, Mewar, Marwar, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, and Deccan.
4. What was the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?
(i)Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs.
(ii)However, mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs.
(iii)They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments (jagirs) collected their servants for them, while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
5. What was the role of the zamindar in Mughal administration?
(i)Zamindars were intermediaries to the Mughal rulers; they were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains.
(ii)In some areas, the zamindars exercised a great deal of power.
(iii)Sometimes, zamindars and peasants of the same caste allied and rebelled against the Mughal authority.
6. How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
(i) Akbar interacted extensively on religions with religious scholars such as the ulama, Brahmanas, Jesuit priests (Roman Catholics), and Zoroastrians.
(ii)This experience made him realise that some of the religious scholars who emphasized ritual and dogma were often bigots. Their teachings created divisions and disharmony amongst his subjects.
(iii) This led to the birth of the idea of sulh-i kul or "universal peace". This idea emphasized more on tolerance and taught against discrimination between people of different religions in Akbar’s realm.
(iv)It focused on universally applicable values such as ethics, honesty, justice, and peace.
(v) This governance model was later followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well.
7. Why did the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mughal descent?
(i)The Mughals emphasized their Mongol descent because Genghis Khan's memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors.
(ii)On the other hand, they were proud of their Timurid lineage, because their great ancestor had invaded and occupied Delhi in 1398.
8. How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
(i) The income from land revenue was the main source of income of the Mughal Empire.
(ii) The Mughal Empire was very large. A huge amount of finance for running the administration and maintaining law and order came from the revenue.
(iii) The land revenue was also important for salaries of the soldiers and officials and welfare works for the people.
(iv) Land revenue played a significant role in the economy of the Mughal Empire.
9. Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis?
(i)As the empire expanded to encompass different regions with different cultural practices and beliefs, the Mughal rulers recruited mansabdars from diverse backgrounds.
(ii) This strategy prevented any challenge to the Mughal authority, since it brought the powerful local chieftains under the control of the Empire.
10. Like the Mughal Empire, India today is also made up of many social and cultural units. Does this pose a challenge to national integration?
(i)Today, India is known for its multi-cultural identities; the country follows the principle of "unity in diversity". People living here are united by the common historical pasts and knowledge. Every Indian considers this nation as his or her motherland.
(ii)India’s social and cultural units do not pose a challenge to national integration because the country has adopted a secular constitution and a democratic-republic political system, with universal suffrage.
11. Peasants were vital for the economy of the Mughal Empire. Do you think that they are as important today? Has the gap in the income between the rich and the poor in India changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals?
(i)Yes. Peasants are important today for the economy.
(ii)The gap in the income between the rich and the poor in India has changed significantly from the period of the Mughals, due to the growth of advanced science and technology in agriculture.