NCERT Solutions for Class 7 for Social Science History Chapter 10 Eighteenth Century Political Formations
1. Match the following:
Subadar- a revenue farmer
faujdar - a high noble
ijaradar - provincial governor
misl- Maratha peasant warriors
Chauth- a Mughal military commander
kunbis- a band of Sikh warriors
umara- tax levied by the Marathas
Subadar- provincial governor
faujdar – a Mughal military commander
ijaradar – a revenue farmer
misl- a band of Sikh warriors
chauth– tax levied by the Marathas
Kunbis– Maratha peasant warriors
umara– a high noble
2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.
(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari in Hyderabad.
(d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa‘adat Khan.
3. State whether true or false:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
4. What were the offices held by Sa‘adat Khan?
Sa‘adat Khan held the combined offices of subadari, diwani and faujdari; that is to say, he was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.
5. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
(i) Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system to decrease the influence of Mughal in their provinces.
(ii) The Nawabs reduced the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals and appointed their own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iii) The jagirdars appointed by the Mughals were corrupt so the Nawabs reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed their own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iv) They checked the accounts of jagirdars to prevent cheating and corruption.
(v) The revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the courts of the Nawabs.
6. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?
(i) The Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.
(ii) The combined forces of the Sikhs were known as the grand army (dal khalsa).
(iii)The forces used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known as “resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)”.
(iv) A system called rakhi was introduced, offering protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the agricultural produce.
7. Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
(i) The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to occupy the Mughal territories and to collect taxes from the conquered regions.
(ii) Under the Peshwas, the Marathas developed a very successful military organisation.
(iii) Between 1720 and 1761, the Maratha Empire expanded. It gradually chipped away at the authority of the Mughal Empire.
(iv) Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by the 1720s.
(v) By the 1730s, the Maratha king was recognised as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula.
(vi) He possessed the right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in the entire region.
8. What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
The following were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position:
(i)He, as the Mughal governor of the Deccan provinces, exercised full control over its political and financial administration.
(ii)He took advantage of the turbulent political condition in the Deccan amongst the court nobility to strengthen his power and became the actual ruler of that region.
(iii)Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrative officials from northern India; they welcomed the new opportunities in the Deccan.
(iv)He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs. Although he was still a servant of the Mughal Emperor, he ruled independently without seeking any direction and interference from Delhi.
(v)The Mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by the Nizam.
9. Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
(i)In today's world, merchants and bankers do not have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century.
(ii)The idea of democratic and republic institutions have changed the whole scenario.
(iii)Everything from revenue collection to the price of goods in the market comes under common financial rules which are governed by a parliamentary system, unlike in the eighteenth century.