NCERT Solutions for Class 7 for Social Science History Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans
1. Which ruler first established his or her capital at Delhi?
Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs.
2. What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans?
Persian was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans.
3. In whose reign did the Sultanate reach its farthest extent?
In Muhammad Tughluq’s reign, the Sultanate reached its farthest extent.
4. From which country did Ibn Battuta travel to India?
Ibn Battuta, a fourteenth-century traveler, travelled to India from Morocco, Africa.
5. According to the “Circle of Justice”, why was it important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind?
(i) According to the “Circle of Justice”, a king cannot survive without soldiers. And soldiers cannot live without salaries.
(ii)Salaries come from the revenue collected from peasants.
(iii)But peasants can pay revenue only when they are prosperous and happy.
(iv)This happens when the king promotes justice and honest governance. That is why, it was important for military commanders to keep the interests of the peasantry in mind.
6. What is meant by the “internal” and “external” frontiers of the Sultanate?
(i)Internal frontiers of the Sultanate included the hinterlands of the garrison towns and Ganga-Yamuna doab.
(ii)External frontiers of the Sultanate included the unconquered areas of southern India which was beyond the control of Delhi.
7. What were the steps taken to ensure that muqtis performed their duties? Why do you think they may have wanted to defy the orders of the Sultans?
(i) The state appointed accountants to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis, to prevent from committing fraud.
(ii)Care was taken that the muqti collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and that he kept the required number of soldiers.
8. What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate?
The Impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate:
(i) The rulers of Delhi Sultanate raised a large standing army and took various administrative measures.
(ii) Alauddin Khalji constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers, while Muhammad Tughluq emptied the residents and the soldiers garrisoned from the oldest of the four cities of Delhi (Dehli-i Kuhna).
(iii) To feed a large number of soldiers, the produce was collected as tax from lands between the Ganga and Yamuna. Tax was fixed at 50 per cent of the peasant’s yield.
(iv)The Sultans started paying their soldiers in cash rather than iqtas. Muhammad Tughluq issued a “token” currency to deal with the situation.
(v) These measures posed many administrative and financial challenges.
9. Do you think the authors of tawarikh would provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women?
The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages. They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards; therefore, they would not provide information about the lives of ordinary men and women.
10. Raziyya Sultan was unique in the history of the Delhi Sultanate. Do you think women leaders are accepted more readily today?
Yes. Women leaders who are elected by the people to run the governments are accepted more readily today.
11. Why were the Delhi Sultans interested in cutting down forests? Does deforestation occur for the same reasons today?
(i)The Delhi Sultans were interested in cutting down forests to give land to the peasants to carry out agricultural practices.
(ii)They constructed new fortresses and towns to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade. They also cleared forests in order to safeguard their frontiers, and to facilitate the quick movement of their army.
(iii)In today's world, deforestation occurs due to construction of roads, railways, buildings and industrial infrastructure. So, we can say that deforestation occurs for the exploitation of land and forest resources in the name of development.