NCERT Solutions Class 12 Sociology The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society. The NCERT solutions for Class 12 Sociology book have been made by Sociology teacher of one of the best CBSE school in India. Sociology in class 12 is an important subject for Class 12 Humanities students. Its easy to learn and can help to get good marks. These NCERT solutions have been made to give detailed answers and explanations which can be easily understood by the students. You can download the NCERT solutions for free in pdf format. Refer to other links also to download Class 12 Sociology NCERT solutions, worksheets, sample papers and test papers.
1.Explain the basic argument of the theory of the demographic transition. Why is the transition period associated with a ‘population explosion’?
Answer. Theory of demographic transition suggests that population growth in linked to overall levels of economic development and that every society follows a typical pattern of development related population growth.
There are three basic phases of population growth:
Stage I: Primitive Stage [Underdeveloped countries]
- Low population growth in a society that is underdeveloped and technologically backward.
- In such societies like Africa birth rate is high since people are unaware of the advantages of having small families, they are not educated.
- Death rate is also high since health and medical facilities are not available, therefore population is low.
Stage II: [Developing countries]. The birth rate and death rate rank very high, the net growth rate remains low. Birth rate is high as in this society people live in a patriarchal society in which men decide how many children must be born and male child is preferred. People are illiterate and ignorant. Death rate is also high since health and medical facilities are not available.
Stage III: [Developed countries]. Birth rate in low because people are educated and aware and use contraceptives, birth control is popularised. Death rate is also low because of availability of health and medical facilities, therefore population is low.
Transitional Stage: The stage between backwardness and skilled people]: In this stage growth rate of population is very high whereas death rates are brought down due to better medical facilities, nutrition and better medical and technological advancement therefore this transition period is associated with a population explosion.
2. Why did Malthus believe that catastrophic events like famines and epidemics that cause mass deaths were inevitable?
Answer. English political economist Thomas Robert Malthus argued that human population tend to grow at a much faster rates than the rate which the means of human subsistence (land, agriculture) can grow.He said population rises in geometric progression whereas agricultural production can onlygrow in Arithmetic progression.
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