NCERT Solutions Class 12 Psychology Variations in Psychological Attributes. The NCERT solutions for Class 12 Psychology book have been made by Psychology teacher of one of the best CBSE school in India. Psychology in class 12 is an important subject for Class 12 Humanities students. Its easy to learn and can help to get good marks. These NCERT solutions have been made to give detailed answers and explanations which can be easily understood by the students. You can download the NCERT solutions for free in pdf format. Refer to other links also to download Class 12 Psychology NCERT solutions, worksheets, sample papers and test papers.
1. How do psychologists characterise and define intelligence?
Every psychologists characterise and define intelligence in their own way. Alfred Binet was one of the first psychologists who worked on intelligence and defined intelligence as 'the ability to judge well, understood well and reason well.' Wechsler intelligence test is widely used who understood intelligence in terms of functionality i.e. its value for adaptation to environment. He defined it as the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully, and to deal effectively with her/his environment. Gardner and Sternberg have suggested that an intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but also actively modifies or shapes it. Thus, intelligence have certain attributes like mentally alert and quick, sense of humour and understanding according to psychologists.
2. To what extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss.
Intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). There are various which shows that intelligence is the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). A study on twins and adopted children support this.
• The intelligence of identical twins reared together correlate almost 0.90. Twins separated early in childhood also show considerable similarity in their intellectual, personality and behavioural characteristics.
• The intelligence of identical twins reared in different environments correlate 0.72, those of fraternal twins reared together correlate almost 0.60, and those of brothers and sisters reared together correlate about 0.50, while siblings reared apart correlate about 0.25.
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