NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Environmental Issues. The NCERT solutions for Class 11 Mathematics have been made by Mathematics teacher of one of the best CBSE school in India. These NCERT solutions have been made to give detailed answers and expanations of the concepts as per NCERT which can be easily understood by the students. Refer to other links also to download mathematics NCERT solutions, worksheets, sample papers and Exemplar Solutions.
Class 12 Biology
Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
Question 1: What are the various constituents of domestic sewage? Discuss the effects of sewage discharge on a river.
Answer Domestic sewage is the waste originating from the kitchen, toilet, laundry, and other sources. It contains impurities such as suspended solid (sand, salt, clay), colloidal material (fecal matter, bacteria, plastic and cloth fiber), dissolved materials (nitrate, phosphate, calcium, sodium, ammonia), and disease-causing microbes. When organic wastes from the sewage enter the water bodies, it serves as a food source for micro- organisms such as algae and bacteria. As a result, the population of these micro- organisms in the water body increases. Here, they utilize most of the dissolved oxygen for their metabolism. This results in an increase in the levels of Biological oxygen demand (BOD) in river water and results in the death of aquatic organisms. Also, the nutrients in the water lead to the growth of planktonic algal, causing algal bloom. This causes deterioration of water quality and fish mortality.
Question 2: List all the wastes that you generate, at home, school or during your Trips to other places, could you very easily reduce? Which would be Difficult or rather impossible to reduce?
Answer Wastes generated at home include plastic bags, paper napkin, toiletries, kitchen wastes (such as peelings of vegetables and fruits, tea leaves), domestic sewage, glass, etc. Wastes generated at schools include waste paper, plastics, vegetable and fruit peels, food wrappings, sewage etc. Wastes generated at trips or picnics include plastic, paper, vegetable and fruit peels, disposable cups, plates, spoons etc. Yes, wastes can be easily reduced by the judicious use of the above materials. Wastage of paper can be minimized by writing on both sides of the paper and by using recycled paper. Plastic and glass waste can also be reduced by recycling and re-using. Also, substituting plastics bags with biodegradable jute bags can reduce wastes generated at home, school, or during trips. Domestic sewage can be reduced by optimizing the use of water while bathing, cooking, and other household activities. Non- biodegradable wastes such as plastic, metal, broken glass, etc are difficult to decompose because micro-organisms do not have the ability to decompose them.
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