NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science for Chapter 2 Freedom
Q1. What is meant by freedom? Is there a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation?
Answer: Freedom means that an individual is allowed to do all those things which do not harm others and are essential for a person’s own development. There is a close relationship between the freedom for individual and for the nation because:
1. If nation is free, every individual of it will be free to enhance their creativities and capabilities.
2. Development of a nation depends on cooperation, creativity and capabilities of individuals, which can be exercised in the absence of external constraints.
3. A free society enables all its members to develop their potentials with the minimum of social constraints.
4. Though no society can be imagined without the absence of constraints but it is necessary to determine whether it is acceptable or justified.
5. Social constraints are necessary to be examined through debates, discussions between individual and the society.
Q2. What is the difference between the negative and positive conception of liberty?
Liberty is understood in two different ways-Negative and positive aspects of liberty.Negative conception of liberty:
1. It implies the absence of restraints and rights to do whatever one likes.
2. This conception may make the powerful person more powerful to keep the weaker ones on their mercy.
Following are the drawbacks of Negative conception of liberty:
I. Liberty is concerned with the area control, not with its source; hence this is not necessary to have democracy to enjoy freedom.
II. The state should control the liberty of an individual only upto the limit where he interferes in other’s such liberty.Positive conception of Liberty
1. It refers to the society in which adequate facilities are available for each and every section of society to enjoy desirable rights.
2. In brief it means the enjoyment of certain important rights such as freedom of life, freedom of thought and freedom to worship, etc.
3. This believes that any individual or section should not hinder the progress of others.
4. People can enjoy all freedom which are permissible by laws.
5. In ensures the growth of poor, weak and downtrodden people also.
6. It interprets that liberty lies in the removal of hindrances.
Q3. What is meant by social constraints? Are constraints of any kind necessary for enjoying freedom?
According to M. Kechni, “Freedom is not the absence of all restraints but rather the substitution of rational ones for irrational.”
According to Laski, “Liberty means the absence of restraints upon the existence of these social conditions which in modern civilization are the necessary guarantee of individual happiness.” Social constraint refers to the restrictions imposed by the society whosoever is unauthorized for the same.
Necessity of constraints:
1. There are various sections who demand a ban on films, article, journals, blogs, etc.
2. Though ban is an easy solution for the short term to meet the demand immediately, but it is very harmful considering the long term prospects.
3. If we willingly accept restrictions to pursue our goals or ambitions our freedom is not limited. In any case if we are coerced into accepting the conditions we cannot claim to be curtailed freedom.
Q4. What is the role of the state in upholding freedom of its citizens?
• Freedom of citizens of the state determines the scope of freedom, i.e. freedom of citizens depends on the will of rulers in a monarchy, democratic state grants fundamental rights to the citizens.
• A state is controlled by the government because, whatever the government does it effect, the freedom of citizens and if any conflict becomes violent, it hinders the day-to-day life of state.
• It state is unable to manage army and police, it disrupts the law and order of the country.
• A welfare state always initiates to protect the freedom of backward people along its citizens.
Q5. What is meant by freedom of expression? What in your view would be a reasonable restriction on this freedom? Give examples.
Freedom of expression means the free flow of ideas by word and image. To add to this further,
1. It is a right of non-interference by the state.
2. It is a fundamental value and hence, society must be willing to hear some inconvenience also to protect it from people whosoever wants to restrict it.
Reasonable restrictions on freedom of expression:
a) At various times the demands have been raised to ban books, plays, films and academic articles, blogs, etc.
b) Freedom has been classified as positive and negative liberty which requires some justifiable constraints only.
c) But those constraints are supported by the people, and moral arguments.