NCERT Solutions Class 11 History Chapter 6 The Three Orders

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History for Chapter 6 The Three Orders

Describe two features of early feudal society in France.

Answer:

(i)In the feudal society, the peasants cultivated their own land as well as that of the lord. The peasants performed labour services for the lords, who in exchange provided military protection.

(ii)French priests believed in the concept that people were members of one of the three 'orders', depending on their work. Priests placed themselves in the first order, nobles in the second order and peasants, free and unfree groups in the third order.


How did long-term changes in population levels affect economy and society in Europe?

Answer:

  1. Expansion in agriculture resulted in the growth of population, trade and towns. Europe's population increased from 42 million in 1000 to 73 million in 1300.
  2. Surplus food production increased lifespan. Many new cities emerged. They became important trade and commercial centers. The bigger towns had populations of about 30,000.
  3. Peasants sold their surplus grain in the cities and bought tools and cloth.


Why did knights become a distinct group, and when did they decline?

Answer:

  1. From the ninth century, frequent localized wars in Europe demanded good cavalry because the amateur peasant-soldiers could not provide better defence.
  2. A new section of people, the knights, provided the cavalry. They were linked to the lords who were under the control of the king.
  3. The lord gave the knight a piece of land (called 'fief') and promised to protect it.
  4. The knights declined when the feudal order started declining.


What was the function of medieval monasteries?

Answer:

  1. Apart from the Church, deeply religious Christians chose to live isolated lives, in contrast to clerics who lived amongst people in towns and villages.
  2. They lived in religious communities called abbeys or monasteries; they were built in places very far from human habitation.


Answer in a short essay

Imagine and describe a day in the life of a craftsman in a medieval French town.

Answer:

  1. Craftsmen played vital role in the feudal economic order. The basis of economic organisation was the guild. Each craft was organised into a guild, which controlled the quality of the crafts, its price and its sale.
  2. The 'guild-hall' was a feature of every town; it was a building for ceremonial functions, and where the heads of all the guilds met formally.
  3. In France, by the twelfth century, commerce and crafts began to grow.
  4. Earlier, craftsmen used to travel from manor to manor; now they found it easier to settle in one place where goods could be produced and traded for food.


Compare
the conditions of life for a French serf and a Roman slave.

Answer:

Conditions of French serf:

  1. Serfs cultivated plots of land that belonged to the lord. Much of the produce from this was taken away by the lord.
  2. They also had to work on the land which belonged exclusively to the lord.
  3. They were paid no wages and could not leave the estate without the lord's permission. The lord controlled the serfs in every way.
  4. Serfs could use only their lord's mill to grind their flour, his oven to bake their bread, and his winepresses to distil wine and beer.
  5. The lord could decide whom a serf should marry, or gave his blessing to the serf's choice, but on payment of a fee.
  6. When the towns and cities emerged, many serfs craving to be free ran away and hid in towns. If a serf could stay for one year and one day without getting caught by his lord, he would become a free man.

Conditions of Roman slaves:

  1. Slavery was an institution deeply rooted in the Roman Empire. During the rule of Augustus, there were still 3 million slaves in a total Italian population of 7.5 million.
  2. In the Roman Empire, slaves were an investment; they were used as living-tools for services and labour. The Roman upper classes were brutal towards their slaves.
  3. When there was a shortage of slaves, the users of slave labour turned to slave breeding- the practice of encouraging female slaves and their partners to have more children, who could be used as slaves in future.

 

Tags: 

 


Click for more History Study Material

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

Procedure for correction in Name and Date of Birth

Procedure for correction in Name and Date of Birth in CBSE records Name Change: Applications regarding changes in name or surname of candidates will be considered provided the changes have been admitted by the Court of law and notified in the Government Gazette before...

CBSE Decision on Board Exam 2020

The Class 10 and 12 exams are cancelled, and results for both 10th and 12th would be declared by July 15 based on internal exams. CBSE Class 12 students would have the option to appear for the exams at a later date. CBSE has a scheme in which marks scored in past 3...

Cogito and The Question Book A series on Thinking skills by CBSE

The Board has dedicated this academic session 2020-21 for ‘Competency Based Learning’. Skills connected to Critical & Creative thinking, Problem Solving, Collaboration and Communication are core to successful living in the 21st Century. To focus on the importance...

Board Exams Class 10 and 12 Notification by CBSE

Because of the prevailing condition of spread of COVID-19 pandemic in the country, special efforts are required for conducting examinations in a safe manner. As a number of students have shifted from the district of their school to some other district in the country,...

Class 10 Datesheet announced

CBSE has announced the date sheet for the remaining class 10 Board Exams, see dates below

×
Studies Today