NCERT Solutions Class 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernisation

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 History for Chapter 11 Paths to Modernisation 

What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernize rapidly?


Major developments were:

  1. Peasantry was disarmed and only the samurai class could carry swords. This ended frequent wars and stabilized peace.
  2. Population growth boosted commercial economy, and use of money created financial and credit systems.
  3. Land was surveyed and owners were asked to pay regular tax.
  4. Paying for imports with gold and silver was stopped. Silk industry had achieved an extraordinary growth.
  5. Cultural growth- new reading habit, study of ancient Japanese literature, and patronization of art and theatre by merchants- was another major development.

Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed.


  1. Japan's transformation into a modern society changed everyday life drastically.
  2. Patriarchal household system disappeared. People became affluent, and nuclear family system emerged.
  3. In nuclear families, husband and wife lived as breadwinner and homemaker.
  4. Their lifestyle in turn generated demands for new types of domestic goods, new types of family entertainments, and new forms of housing.

How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?


To meet the challenge posed by the Western powers, Qing reformers initiated policies to build a modern administrative system, a new army and an educational system.

  1. They set up local assemblies to establish constitutional government.
  2. To teach the masses about destructive consequences of the western domination, they highlighted negative examples of colonized countries such as the partition of Poland, and participation of Indians in the British army that fought wars against China.
  3. They felt that traditional ways of thinking influenced by Confucianism was a major barrier to new ideas and institutions.
  4. To train people in modern subjects, students were sent to study in Japan, Britain and France; they brought back many innovative ideas.
  5. Chinese thinkers borrowed Japanese translations of European political ideas such as justice, rights and revolution.

What were Sun Vat-sen's Three Principles?

The followings were Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles (San min chui):

  1. Nationalism- spreading nationalism to overthrow the Manchu rulers (a foreign dynasty) and other foreign imperialists
  2. Democracy - establishing democratic government
  3. Socialism - regulating capital and equalizing landholdings

Answer in a short essay

Did Japan's policy of rapid industrialization lead to wars with its neighbours and destruction of the environment?


  1. Japan's policy of rapid industrialization led to wars with its neighbours and destruction of the environment.
  2. To accumulate more raw materials, Japan had to occupy new colonies and exploit resources, and its territorial domination put it in collision with the local people.
  3. The rapid and unregulated growth of industry and the demand for natural resources such as timber led to environmental destruction.

Do you think that Mao Zedong and the 
Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success?


  1. Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successfuI in Iiberating China from colonial domination and established the Peoples Republic of China in 1949.
  2. The Communist Party also laid a strong foundation for the future development of China, and to some extent, it could be attributed to its current success.
  3. Vital economic resources were put under government control, and private ownership of natural resources was gradually ended.
  4. The Great Leap Forward (1958) boosted the country's industrial growth.
  5. Establishment of people's communes enabled the masses to participate in a 'collective and cooperative production' system. It ended exploitation of man by man.
  6. With the launch of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1965, the Red Guards (students and professionals) campaigned against old cultural practices, irrational customs and traditional habits.
  7. The 'Fifth Modernisation' from 1978 proclaimed the importance of Democracy if other Four defence) had to be achieved.
  8. However, the current system in China has been lapsing into an authoritarian political system and has emerged as a strong nee-liberal capitalist state.
  9. Critics argue that China is witnessing tremendous socio-economic inequalities due to market economy, and it has intensified social tensions there.




Click for more History Study Material

Latest NCERT & CBSE News

Read the latest news and announcements from NCERT and CBSE below. Important updates relating to your studies which will help you to keep yourself updated with latest happenings in school level education. Keep yourself updated with all latest news and also read articles from teachers which will help you to improve your studies, increase motivation level and promote faster learning

CBSE Boards Paper Checking to Start

As per the announcement recently released by the Ministry of Home Affairs, at least 3000 CBSE affiliated selected as evaluation centers for board exam answer sheets will be allowed to open for the limited purpose of evaluation purposes only. The answer sheets for Board...

Class 12 Board Exams Datesheet Announced

CBSE has announced the datesheet of the remaining class 12 board exams, see below:  

CBSE Online Training for Teachers 2020

It is clear that this pandemic has utterly disrupted an education system that many assert was already losing its relevance. Enhancing professional development digitally is a need in the times of COVID-19, where social distancing and remote interactions is the new...

Cogito and The Question Book A series on Thinking skills by CBSE

The Board has dedicated this academic session 2020-21 for ‘Competency Based Learning’. Skills connected to Critical & Creative thinking, Problem Solving, Collaboration and Communication are core to successful living in the 21st Century. To focus on the importance...

Board Exams helpline by CBSE

According to the recent announcement of CBSE, the pending Class 10 and 12 Board exams are going to be held from 01 July to 15 July 2020 in India. Along with this, it has also been decided to resume the free of cost tele-counseling service for students from 9.30 am to 5...

Procedure for correction in Name and Date of Birth

Procedure for correction in Name and Date of Birth in CBSE records Name Change: Applications regarding changes in name or surname of candidates will be considered provided the changes have been admitted by the Court of law and notified in the Government Gazette before...

Studies Today