NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Geography for Chapter 2 Structure and Physiography
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below
(i) In which part of Himalayas do we find the Karewa formation?
(a) North-eastern Himalayas
(b) Himachal-Uttarakhand Himalayas
(c) Eastern Himalayas
(d) Kashmir Himalayas
Answer: (d) Kashmir Himalayas
(ii) In which of the following states is Loktak lake situated?
Answer: (c) Manipur
(iii) Which one of the water bodies separates the Andaman from the Nicobar?
(a) 11° Channel
(b) Gulf of Mannar
(c) 10° Channel
(d) Andaman Sea
Answer: (c) 10° Channel
(iv) On which of the following hill range is the ‘Dodabeta’ peak situated?
(a) Nilgiri hills
(b) Anaimalai hills
(c) Cardamom hills
(d) Nallamala hills
Answer: (b) Anaimalai hills
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words
(i) If a person is to travel to Lakshadweep, from which coastal plain does he prefer and why?
Answer: For a person travelling to Lakshadweep, the Kerala coastal plain would be preferred because this plain is 200 to 440 kilometres off to this group of islands.
(ii) Where in India will you find a cold desert? Name some important ranges of this region.
Answer: Cold desert conditions prevail in Leh-Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir. Ladakh is a high altitude desert as the Himalayas create a rain shadow, generally denying entry to monsoon clouds. This area is surrounded by Zaskar, Ladakh and Karakoram ranges. The main source of water is the winter snowfall on the mountains.
(iii) Why is the western coastal plain is devoid of any delta?
Answer: The western coastal plains are narrow in the middle and get broader towards the Gujarat and Kerala. Several swift and small rivers originating from the Western Ghats do not have much sediment to deposit and the plain is devoid of any delta.
3. Answer the following questions in not more than 125 words.
(i) Make a comparison of the island groups of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
Answer: The Bay of Bengal island groups consist of about 572 islands/islets. The entire group of island is divided into two broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. These islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. Some smaller islands are volcanic in origin.
The islands of the Arabian Sea include Lakshadweep and Minicoy. These islands are located at a distance of 280 km-480 km off the Kerala coast. The entire island group is built of coral deposits. There are approximately 36 islands. Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq. km. The Islands of this archipelago have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders on the eastern seaboard.
(ii) What are the important geomorphological features found in the river valley plains?
Answer: The Great plains have a number of geomorpological features. Some of them are following:
- The Bhabar lies along the foot of the Shiwaliks from the river Indus in Jammu and Kashmir to the river Tista in Sikkim. It is a narrow belt of 10 to 20 km wide comprising of pebble-studded rocks in the shape of porus beds. These beds are laid down by streams coming from the hills.
- The Tarai is situated to the south of Bhabar and runs parallel to it. Large stretches are marshy and swampy due to re-emergence of underground streams.
- The Bhangar is composed of old alluvium. Bangar plains are more upland and areas are less prone to flooding, but are usually more sandy and less fertile as well.
- The Khadar consists of new alluvial deposits and is often very fertile. Most of these areas are subjected to periodic floods and shifting river courses forming braided streams.
(iii) If you move from Badrinath to Sunderbans delta along the course of the river Ganga, what major geomorphological features will you come across?
Answer: If a person move from Badrinath (Uttarakhand) to sunderbans delta along the course of the river Ganga, he has to cross the following geomorphological features.
-He will come across the steep slope, v-shaped valleys, waterfalls, landslides and hills of Himalaya in Uttarakhand.
-In some places, he will observe tributaries joining the main river Ganga.
-At Haridwar in Uttarakhand, he will enter in the plains.
-In the plain, at several places the river forms the meanders, ox-bow lakes, and braded streams.
-In the last, he will see swampy and marshy sundarbans delta.