NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Discovering Tut The Saga Continues AR Williams
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues
A. R. Williams
1. Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
Forensic reconstruction- It is the process of recreating the face of a person from the skeletal remains.
Scudded across- It refers to moving quickly.
Casket grey- The phrase points out to the covering of the star by the clouds.
Resurrection- It refers to the new life after death.
Funerary treasures- The valuable things with which the king was buried.
Circumvented- The thieves would easily bypass the guards with artfulness and rip the mummy apart to remove the gold.
Computed tomography- It is also known as CT scan, which provides X-ray image of a body in cross section used for diagnosis purpose.
Eerie detail- Strange description of the resulting image of the head of Tut visible through the CT scan.
Understanding the Text
1. Give reasons for the following.
(i) King Tut's body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
(ii) Howard Carter's investigation was resented.
(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the king's remains.
(iv) Tut's body was buried along with gilded treasures.
(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.
1. There has also been a lot of speculation about the manner and the time of his death. In order to find out the reasons behind death and mysteries associated with it, King Tut's body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
2. Howard Carter's investigation was resented because he removed the head and broke almost all the joints in the body in order to take the body away from the wooden base. He did great damages to the body in such a way that resented the investigation.
3. The mummy was cemented to the bottom of the solid gold coffin because ritual resin used as a polish had hardened. No strongest force could move the mummy from the base. Nor the burning sun could loosen the remains of the king so Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins.
4. The ancient royals of Egypt believed in resurrection. They also believed that they could take their wealth with them and they could use them during the journey after life. Therefore, gilded treasures were buried with the dead bodies. Tutankhamen means 'Living image of Amun'. He was a major god in ancient Egypt. King Akhenaten, smashed the images of Amun and closed his temples. Tut restored the old ways and changed his name to express his belief in Amun.
2. (i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as "wacky".
(ii)What were the results of the CT scan? (iii) List the advances in technology that have
improved forensic analysis. (iv) Explain the statement, "King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned — in death, as in life..."
(i) According to Ray Johnson, Akhenten was wacky because: He promoted the worship of Aten instead of Amun. He moved the religious capital from Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten. He smashed Amun's images and closed Amun's temples. He changed his name to Akhenaten or servant of Aten.
(ii) The CT scan revealed new clues about the life and death of King Tut and provided precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction of the king. The CT scan displayed the mummy from head to toe creating 1,700 digital X-ray images in cross section. It showed a grey head, neck vertebrae, a hand, several images of rib cages and a transection of the skull.
(iii) Technology has developed rapidly that these day there are many devices and techniques like , Alternative Light Photography, 3D Forensic Facial Reconstruction, DNA Sequencer, C.T. Scan, etc. are available for forensic analysis. The Computed Tomography (C.T. Scan) helps us to take hundreds of X-ray images in cross-sections. They can be put together like slices of bread to create three dimensional virtual body. This provides precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction.
(iv) Among the many mummies Tut's is the first to be scanned after his death. Thus he led the experience of scanning the mummies. When he was alive he was the first among his countrymen when he led the country as a powerful emperor.
Talking about the Text
1. Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
Students should prepare the answer on their own. Some points are given here for their reference.
For knowing the truth is important while learning history - many unresolved mysteries exist like various civilization, construction of pyramids, etc. Science and technology can reveal the hidden secrets – people will remain superstitious if there no scientific intervention OR
Against spending time and money on learning history is not more important – we need to spend money for improving the present condition of the living people not the dead of the past – investing huge amount in the investigation on mummies and other historical stuff is useless when millions of people are starving
2. Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
Answer For It is possible to solve medical issues with the advanced technology - C.T. Scan is used for finding out reasons of the death of a person - helps in getting the 3-D view of the various body parts -provides details of complex body parts - provides data for forensic reconstruction - satellite imaging technology helps find important sites - date and time of a past event can be confirmed through advanced technology Against It is useless to gather facts about the past - more important to focus on the present issues and events -the evidences and proofs collected about past events are not accurate – in the example of the C.T. Scan of Tut not much details about his death could be collected - it cannot give conclusive evidence
3. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.
Traditions, rituals and funerary practices are the inevitable part of community which provides identity to it – maintain the continuity of a culture -help in transferring the values of ancestors to the new generation – we can learn the progress of human civilization by studying the cultural practices of different communities Against Traditions, customs and funerary practices sometimes encourage superstition -hamper the development – affect the unity among different communities – cause violence and riot `
Talking about Language
1. What do you think are the reasons for the extinction of languages?
Answer The following are some reasons for the extinction of languages:
Invasion of foreign rulers who destroyed local literature
Migration of people to other lands
Adaptation of other cultures and languages
Limitation of vocabulary
Absence of written script
Changes in the society
2. Do you think it is important to preserve languages?
Yes, it is important to preserve languages as they are the responsible factors which give identity to a community. It also helps in preserving the heritage and traditions as well as the development of the community. One can access one’s history and literature if the language is preserved.
3. In what ways do you think we could help prevent the extinction of languages and dialects?
The following ways can be used to prevent the extinction of languages and dialects: Preserving the vocabulary and dialects of the language and transferring them to the next generation, encouraging the use of mother-tongue, teaching the languages in colleges and universities and encouraging the students to specialise in the same, staying connected to one's cultural roots, etc.
Working with Words
1. Given below are some interesting combinations of words. Explain why they have been used together.
(i) ghostly dust devils
(ii) desert sky
(iii) stunning artefacts
(iv) funerary treasures
(v) scientific detachment
(vi) dark-bellied clouds
(vii) casket grey
(viii) eternal brilliance
(ix) ritual resins
(x) virtual body
(i) ghostly dust devils- It refers to the frightful movement of the dusty winds which disturbed the king from his resting place.
(ii) desert sky- It refers to the barren sky, spread over the vast desert region, portraying a sad and dry picture.
(iii) stunning artefacts- Extremely beautiful items
(iv) funerary treasures- The king was buried with numerous things which were no less than treasures as most of the items were made of pure gold.
(v) scientific detachment- It refers to an indifference towards science.
(vi) dark-bellied clouds- it refers to the dark clouds containing rain.
(vii) casket grey- the words point out to the stars being covered by the 'dark-bellied clouds', the way jewels are kept in a casket (a jewel box).
(viii)eternal brilliance- eternal refers to something that is timeless. Thus, eternal brilliance refers to timeless luster and shine of the jewels and valuables of the king.
(ix) ritual resins- resins are used as a customary duty in the process of burying a body.
(x) virtual body- a body created through electronic images or CT scan. It resembles a real body and provides a very clear view.
Here are some commonly used medical terms. Find out their meanings.
CT scan- It refers to Computed Tomography. It provides X-ray image of a body in cross section. It is used for diagnostic purposes.
MRI- MRI is the short form of magnetic resonance imaging. It is used in the scanning of internal organs.
Tomography- It refers to taking pictures of the various sections of a human body in a three- dimensional view.
Autopsy- It refers to the post-mortem examination.
Dialysis- It is the process of filtration of bloodstream usually during kidney failure.
ECG- The electrocardiogram is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart in exquisite detail.
Post mortem- It refers to the medical examination and dissection of a dead body to determine the cause of death
Angiography- Angiography is the examination of the blood vessels using x-rays and injecting of a radiopaque substance.
Biopsy- It is the removal and examination of a sample of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes.