NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science Civics Popular Struggles and Movements

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics for Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements

Q1.    In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?

Ans.

Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:

•   They try to gain public support and sympathy for their causes by organising meetings, creating awareness, filing petitions, etc. These groups try to influence media to gain more attention for their causes.

•   They resort to protest forms like strikes or disrupting government programmes. Employees' associations, workers' organisations use such tactics to make the government take note of their demands.

•   Business groups may employ professional lobbyists or sponsor costly advertisements. Some people from movement groups or pressure groups may participate in official bodies that offer advice to the government.

•   While interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics, but they do influence political parties. Most of the movement groups take a political stance without being a party. They have political ideology and political position on major issues. Relationship between pressure groups and political parties can take different forms, some direct and others very indirect.

•   In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students' organisations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of party.

•   Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the 'foreigners' came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long-drawn social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.

•           In most cases the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups.

 

Q2.    Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?

Ans.

The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms, some direct and others very indirect:

•   In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students' organisations in India are either established by, or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of party.

•   Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the 'foreigners' came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long-drawn social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.

• In most cases, the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups.

 

Q3.    Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.

Ans.

•   All citizens may not have the skill or desire to take part in direct political activity. Therefore, they may take up indirect ways of making the government listen to their demands or point of view.

•   Forming a pressure group is one such way to put pressure on the government. These pressure groups mobilize the masses and influence the decision making of the government.

•   For example, in Bolivia there was a popular struggle when the government handed over the contract for municipal water supply to an MNC.

•   There were agitations followed by police repression and then more agitations. Finally, the government was forced to cancel its contract with the MNC.

•   The protest against water privatization in Bolivia was not led by any political party. It was led by an organisation called FEDECOR. This organisation comprised environmentalists, engineers, professional etc.

•   By the success of the popular struggle in Bolivia, it can be concluded that pressure groups play an important role in functioning of a democratic government.

 

Q4.    What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.

Ans.

Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power.

Examples of pressure groups-

•   FEDECOR of Bolivia

•   BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) of India.

 

Q5.    What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?

Ans.

Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. On the other hand, political parties directly contest in elections to form government or to share political power.

 

Q6.   Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called groups.

Ans.

Organisations that undertake  activities to promote the interests of specific  social sections such as workers,  employees, teachers,  and lawyers are called interest groups.

 

Q7.  Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from  a political party?

(a) Parties  take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother  about  political issues.

(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve larger  number of people.

(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilize people, while parties do.

Ans.

(c) Pressure  groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

 

Q8. Match List  I (organisations and struggles) with  List  II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

 

List  I

List  II

1.

Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group

A. Movement

2.

Organisations that seek to promote common interests

B. Political parties

3.

Struggles  used for the resolution  of a social problem with or without an organizational structure

C. Sectional  interest groups

4.

Organisations that mobilize  people with a view to win political power

D. Public interest groups

 

 

1

2

3

4

(a)

c

D

B

A

(b)

c

D

A

B

(c)

D

c

B

A

(d)

B

c

D

A

Ans. (b)


Q9.     Match List  I with  List  II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Iists:

 

List I

List  II

1.

Pressure  group

A. Narmada  Bachao  Andolan

2.

Long-term movement

B. Asom Gana Parishad

3.

Single issue movement

C. Women's  movement

4.

Political party

D. Fertilizer dealers' association

 

 

1

2

3

4

(a)

D

c

A

B

(b)

B

A

D

c

(c)

c

D

B

A

(d)

B

D

c

A

Ans. (a)

 

Q10. Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties.

A. Pressure groups are the organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.

B. Pressure groups take positions on political issues. C. All pressure groups are political parties.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) A,B and C         

(b) A and B              

(c) B and C            

(d) A and C       

 Ans. (b) A and B


Q11. Mewat is one of the most backward areas in Haryana. It used to be a part of two districts, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The people of Mewat felt that the area will get better attention if it were to become a separate district. But political parties were indifferent to this sentiment. The demand for a separate district was raised by Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti in 1996. Later, Mewat Vikas Sabha was founded in 2000 and carried out a series of public awareness campaigns. This forced both the major parties, Congress and the Indian National Lok Oaf, to announce their support for the new district before the assembly elections held in February 2005. The new district came into existence in July 2005.

In this example, what is the relationship that you observe among movement, political parties and the government? Can you think of an example that shows a relationship different from this one?

Ans.

• In the above example, the relationship between political parties and pressure groups is indirect. In such a relationship, political parties and pressure groups have entirely opposing views.

• Here, all political parties were indifferent to the sentiment that Mewat should become a separate district.

• It was only because of the pressure built by pressure groups that major political parties like the Congress and Indian National Lok Dal started supporting the cause.

• In some other instances, the relationship between pressure groups and political parties is direct. For example, most students' unions and trade unions in India are affiliated to one political party or the other.

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