NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Executive
1. A parliamentary executive means:
a. Executive where there is a parliament
b. Executive elected by the parliament
c. Where the parliament functions as the Executive
d. Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament
Answer- Executive that is dependent on support of the majority in the parliament
2. Read this dialogue. Which argument do you agree with? Why?
Amit: Looking at the constitutional provisions, it seems that the President is only a rubber stamp.
Shama: The President appoints the Prime Minister. So, he must have the powers to remove the Prime Minister as well.
Rajesh: We don’t need a President. After the election, the Parliament can meet and elect a leader to be the Prime Minister.
Answer- I agree with the Amit’s argument. It looks that the constitution has given vast powers to the president. It gives the impression that president is very powerful and enjoys significant position. During emergency, president can concentrate all the powers in his hands. He represents India in the international field and is the supreme commander of the armed forces. Thus by acquiring emergency powers he can become dictator. But we must remember the fact that he is just a constitutional head only. He is head of the state not the head of the government. He is bound to accept and act according to the advice of the council of ministers. He cannot act independently. He can send back the advice of the council of ministers for reconsideration once, but cannot return it second time. Thus the president of India enjoys nominal powers only and the head of government is the Prime minister. As Dr. Ambedkar said, “the president occupies the same position as the king under the British constitution. He is head of the nation, but not of the executive. He represents the nation but does not rule the nation”.
3. Match the following
i. Works within the particular State in which recruited a. Indian Foreign Service
ii. Works in any central government office located either at the national capital or elsewhere in the country b. State Civil Services
iii. Works in a particular State to which allotted;can also be sent on deputation to the centre c. All India Services
iv. Works in Indian missions abroad d. Central Services
Works within the particular State in which recruited – State civil services
ii. Works in any central government office located either at the national capital or elsewhere in the country - Central Services
iii.Works in a particular State to which allotted can also be sent on deputation to the centre - All India Services
iv. Works in Indian missions abroad - Indian Foreign Service
4. Identify the ministry which may have released the following news items. Would this be a ministry of the central government or the State government? Why?
a. An official release said that in 2004-05 the Tamil Nadu Textbooks Corporation would release new versions for standards VII, X and XI.
Answer- This official release has been released by state government, because Tamil Nadu Textbook Corporation works under Tamil Nadu government.
b. A new railway loop line bypassing the crowded Tiruvallur-Chennai section to help iron ore exporters. The new line, likely to be about 80 km long, will branch off at Puttur and then reach Athipattu near the port.
Answer- This official release have been released by central government,because Indian railways comes under central government.
c. The three-member sub-divisional committee formed to verify suicide by farmers in Ramayampet Mandal has found that the two farmers who committed suicide this month have had economic problems due to failure of crops.
Answer- Sub divisional committees are formed by state governments.
5. While appointing the Prime Minister, the President selects
a. Leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabha
b. Leader of the largest party in the alliance which secures a majority in the Lok Sabha
c. The leader of the largest party in the Rajya Sabha
d. Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha
Answer- President selects the leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabha or Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha.
6. Read this discussion and say which of these statements applies most to India.
Alok: Prime Minister is like a king, he decides everything in our country.
Shekhar: Prime Minister is only ‘first among equals’, he does not have any special powers. All ministers and the PM have similar powers.
Bobby: Prime Minister has to consider the expectations of the party members and other supporters of the government. But after all, the Prime Minister has a greater say in policy making and in choosing the ministers.
Answer- The statement given by Bobby applies most to India.
7. Why do you think is the advice of the Council of Ministers binding on the President? Give your answer in not more than 100 words.
Answer- President of India is the constitutional head whereas the council of minister is the real executive. He therefore acts on the advice of the council of ministers. 42nd Amendment has made him legally bound to act upon the advice of the cabinet. 44th Amendment of 1978 provided that the president can send the advice of the cabinet back for reconsideration,but if the cabinet insists upon the same advice again, the president cannot refuse to act accordingly. Thus the president has to act upon the advice of the cabinet.
8. The parliamentary system of executive vests many powers in the legislature for controlling the executive. Why, do you think, is it so necessary to control the executive?
Answer- Under parliamentary system of government the executive works under the control of the parliament which exercises its control through many measures like passing the budget, criticism of government, during discussion over budget bill, putting questions on working of government, making many kinds of motions like adjournment motion, censure motion,no confidence motion etc.
The reasons behind putting so much controlover executive are:-
a) In democracy all powers belong to people. The executive exercises its powers on behalf of the people. So it has been made answerable to the people through parliament which consists of peoples representatives.
b) If there is no control over the executive in the shape of budget the executive shall impose taxes upon the people arbitrarily, collect taxes in an arbitrary manner and spend the purse of the nation arbitrarily and in a reckless manner.
c) In the absence of parliamentary control the executive might act dictatorial and despotic, because power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
9. It is said that there is too much political interference in the working of the administrative machinery. It is suggested that there should be more and more autonomous agencies which do not have to answer to the ministers.
a. Do you think this will make administration more people friendly?
b. Do you think this will make administration more efficient?
c. Does democracy mean full control of elected representatives over the administration?
a- Yes, this will make administration more people friendly
b- Yes, this will make administration more efficient.
c- In democracy the elected representatives and the ministers are in charge of government and administration is under their control and supervision. In parliamentary system, the legislature also exercises control over the administration. This full control of elected representatives over the administration is essentially required to run administration efficiently. In the absence of parliamentary control the executive might exercise power recklessly and with ulterior motive, because power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
10. Write an essay of two hundred words on the proposal to have an elected administration instead of an appointed administration.
Answer- In India we have appointed administration which works under the supervision and control of the political executive. The appointed administration is called the permanent Executive. Policies about the administration are made by the political executive and are executed by the permanent executive. The members of permanent executive are recruited on the basis of qualification, open competition and merit, not on the basis of political considerations. They hold office on permanent basis till the age of retirement. When the cabinet or prime minister loses the support of majority in Lok Sabha, the cabinet resigns but the permanent executive remains in the Job. They do not resign with the cabinet and
continue running administration. Permanent executive is known for their political neutrality.
The drawbacks of elected administration are:
1- There is a possibility of confrontation between cabinet and bureaucracy because there is possibility that political executive and elected executive have different political views. This might lead to civil servants not following guidance of ministers.
2- If civil service are also elected by the people, they would claim equal powers with the cabinet and would not like to be ruled over by the cabinet.
3- If civil services are also elected they would be elected for four/five years. In this case they would not take interest in the administration but would continue planning how the next election is to be won.